Scallop, King, scallops

Pecten maximus

Method of production — Caught at sea
Capture method — Dredge
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — Scotland
Stock detail

6a (0-3nm)


Picture of Scallop, King, scallops

Sustainability rating four info

Sustainability overview

Scallops are the second most valuable shellfish fishery in Scotland and represent shortly half of the value of all the scallops landed in the UK. The scallop stocks which provide the highest landings (which comprise over 75% of landings into Scotland) are the Irish Sea, West of Kintyre, the North West, North East and East Coast.

Four stocks were assessed for this region (ICES area 6a), two of which (Clyde and part of the Orkney stock) have not been assessed here because they represent a very small proportion of landings and there isn’t enough information to evaluate if they are healthy. The other two stocks (North West and West of Kintyre) have both have experienced increases in recruitment and spawning stock biomass (SSB), with stable or low levels of fishing mortality. However, Marine Scotland advise that there should be no increase in fishing effort in these two areas.

New management has been implemented into the fishery that follows scientific advice, however, it is too soon to tell how effective these are.

Scallops are almost exclusively fished by dredges; some are removed by commercial divers. The Scottish scallop dredge fleet is comprised of two main components, one of larger boats (>20m) which exploit both inshore and offshore stocks and smaller inshore boats (<15m) restricted to inshore waters. Newhaven Dredges are the main fishing method for scalloping in Scotland.

Dredging can cause significant negative impacts to the bycatch and habitats and therefore, MCS advise that no dredging should occur in vulnerable habitats and MPAs designated to protect habitats.

Biology

King scallops are bivalve molluscs found in a range of depths from shallow waters in sea lochs to over 100m. They inhabit sandy-gravel and gravel seabeds. They have 2 shells or valves, the upper being flat, and the under or right valve, cup shaped. They are hermaphrodites (i.e. both male and female) and become fully mature at about 3 years old (80 to 90mm in length). Spawning occurs in the warmer months, from April to September. The species can grow to more than 20cm in length and live for more than 20 years, although average sizes are in the range of 10-16cm.

Stock information

Criterion score: 0.25 info

Stock Area

Scotland

Stock information

Four stocks were assessed for this region (ICES area 6a), two of which (Clyde and part of the Orkney stock) have not been assessed here because they represent a very small proportion of landings and there isn’t enough information to evaluate if they are healthy. The other two stocks are discussed in detail below but their health has been improving over time.

In the North West area, estimated recruitment has increased and has been above the long-term average since 2010. Estimated Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) has also increased. Landings have been moderate and fishing mortality has been fairly stable, around the long-term average. Catches mostly consist of four to six year olds.

In the West of Kintyre area, recruitment is estimated to have increased substantially and estimated SSB is at record highs. The stock is considered to be stable, at a high level. Landings have increased since 2011, but fishing mortality remains relatively low. Marine Scotland advise that there should be no increase in fishing effort in both these areas. King Scallops are deemed to have medium resilience to fishing pressure.

Management

Criterion score: 0.75 info

New management measures have been implemented for the fishery according to scientific advice, however, it is too soon to tell how effective these measures are. Management does not however include a catch limit or suitable measures to protect the habitat.

Marine Scotland manages Scottish stocks in its territorial waters. There are six Regional Inshore Fishing Groups (RIFGs) that help define management measures within their districts. Scallops are managed under a harvest strategy in Scottish waters which is based on stock trends.

Scottish scallop fisheries are not subject to EU or national Total Allowable Catches. However, in June 2017, new management measures were enacted in Scottish waters (Regulation of Scallop Fishing (Scotland) Order 2017). Management measures included an increased minimum landing size of 105mm, licence requirements for vessels over 10m in length, some effort restrictions, some spatial closures, fishing gear restrictions which are more restrictive in inshore, shallower waters. Under EU Western Waters effort regime, all UK vessels over 15 m in length are restricted to 1,974,425 kW days for Subarea 6 (Council Regulation (EC) No. 1415/2004).The Clyde fisheries are also subject to weekend closures. In the West of Kintyre, management measures are applied to Northern Irish, Scottish and Dutch fleets.

There are Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) under the European Natura 2000 and proposed Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs) under the UK Marine Act. The Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) has committed to ‘Good Environmental Status’ for seafloor habitat by year 2020.The EU habitats Directive and OSPAR defines priority habitat e.g. for biogenic reefs, maerl beds, horse mussel beds and other reef habitats that can be protected or are going through this process.

Scottish regional scallop stock assessments are conducted by Marine Scotland Science (MSS) using fishery dependent (e.g. surveys in processor’s factories) and fishery-independent (e.g. research vessel surveys) survey data. Trends are deduced on fishing mortality, biomass, abundance (pre-recruits and adults) and recruitment. Vessel Monitoring System’s (VMS) data are collected only every two hours which significantly reduces the ability to monitor fishing in relation to Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). However, Electronic Monitoring System (EMS) may help advise management regarding bycatch, the stock status and will help enforce management measures in the fishery.

Capture Information

Criterion score: 1 info

Summary
Some inshore scallop grounds contain patches of rocky ground or reef and lack protection. To mitigate the impact on these habitats, the EU habitats directive requires that priority marine features (including biogenic reefs and maerl beds, horse mussel beds and other reef habitats) require sufficient protection. Whilst there are some closed areas, and the UK Good Practice guide for scallop fishermen requires that impacts to the seabed are minimized, there are insufficient measures to protect inshore habitats.

Bycatch
Bycatch changes depending on the area but generally include a mixture of invertebrates and mainly impact brown crabs. Dredges that use teeth to collect scallops are among the most damaging as they can cause around 20-30% mortality among bycatch species. However, most (around 75%) of the megafauna that scallop dredges interact with remains on the seafloor and is not recorded in bycatch surveys.

Endangered, Threatened and Protected (ETP) species
There is a lack of research on the interactions between the scallop fishery and ETP species in this area but the Shetland scallop fishery have been reported catching common skate, angel shark and porbeagle shark. More monitoring and management is required to reduce the risk to these species. Implementing more durable belly-ring materials at these larger sizes, better monitoring and real-time areas have been methods recommended to improve the selectivity of the fishery.

Habitat
Of concern within this unit of assessment there is a high likelihood of scallop dredging occurring in Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) designated for the protection of seabed features. Out of all tested bottom trawled gears, scallop dredging having the greatest negative impact across all habitat types. Dredging reduces biodiversity, particularly in fragile or sensitive habitats and homogenise the seabed. Damage may increase with the number of dredge tows performed and causes the most depletion out of surveyed bottom gears (removing 41% of biota and penetrating the seabed by an average of 16.1cm).

To mitigate damage to habitats, there are Special Areas of Conservation (SAC) under the European Natura 2000 and proposed Marine Conservation Zones (MCZs) under the UK Marine Act. Around 23% of Scottish waters are covered by Marine Protected areas (MPA)s however, scallop dredging is only banned in 4.4% of Scottish inshore waters (within 12 nautical miles of the coast) Progress has been made, but further MPAs are required to protect vulnerable habitats, particularly for deep-water coral reefs and sensitive habitats such as flame shell beds.

Flame shells (Limaria hians) are bivalve molluscs, similar to mussels, named after their flame-like tentacles. They move around the seabed and build connected nests by burying into the sand. This stabilises the local seabed and provides habitat, acting as ‘spat factories’ for fish and shellfish which sustain local, commercial fisheries including Atlantic cod. Flame shells are a designated ‘priority marine feature’ and are protected by General Policy 9 of the Scottish Government’s National Marine Plan and the Marine Nature Conservation Strategy. Of 30 MPAs implemented in 2014, five were setup to protect flame shell beds. However, some areas were not protected, thus allowing sensitive habitats to remain as legal fishing grounds such as Loch Carron. Urgent studies are required to estimate the extent and recovery time of the damage of this activity and identify measures to restore the habitat.

Spatial management is required to be precautionary and placed in areas likely to contain fragile?primary marine features and other ‘essential fish and shellfish habitat’. Spatial management must include a mixture of management measures (such as curfews, low-impact zones within 3nm from the coastline and closed areas for spawning) to reduce gear conflict and ensure that effort is not just displaced. The Scottish Government’s Inshore Fisheries Bill as part of the Inshore Fisheries Strategy will help deliver this, if implemented effectively. MCS recommends greater inshore fisheries management and that evidence is urgently required, as a requirement of Scotland’s National Marine Plan, to ensure that ‘priority marine features’ are not significantly impacted by fishing activity and inshore waters undergo low-impact fishing.

References

Dobby, H., Fryer, R., Gibson, T., Kinnear, S., Turriff, J. and McLay, A. (2017) Scottish Scallop Stocks: Results of 2016 Stock Assessments. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 8 No 21, 178pp. DOI: 10.7489/2005-1

ICES. 2016. Report of the Scallop Assessment Working Group (WGScallop), 5-9 October 2015, Trinity, Jersey, UK. ICES CM 2015/ACOM:23. 42 pp.

The Regulation of Scallop Fishing (Scotland) Order 2017. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/en/ssi/2017/127/made.

Fisheries Research Services. 2008. Scottish Scallop Stocks - Biology and Assessment. Available at: https://www.gov.scot/Uploads/Documents/FM20Scallopbiology08.pdf

Lambert, G.I., Murray, L.G., Hiddink, J.G., Hinz, H., Lincoln, H., Hold, N., Cambi, G., Kaiser, M.J., 2017. Defining thresholds of sustainable impact on benthic communities in relation to fishing disturbance. Sci. Rep. 7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-04715-4

Hollyrood. 2017. The battle over Scotland's inshore fishing industry. 10th July 2017. Available at: https://www.holyrood.com/articles/inside-politics/battle-over-scotlands-inshore-fishing-industry

Howarth, L. M. & Stewart, B. D. 2014. The dredge fishery for scallops in the United Kingdom (UK): effects on marine ecosystems and proposals for future management. Report to the Sustainable Inshore Fisheries Trust. Marine Ecosystem Management Report no. 5, University of York, 54 pp.

Hiddink, J., Jennings, S., Sciberras, M., Szostek, C.L., Hughes, K.M., Ellis, N., Rijnsdorp, A.D., McConnaughey, R.A., Mazor, T., Hilborn, R., Collie, J.S., Pitcher, C.R., Amoroso, R.O., Parma, A.M., Suuronen, P., and Kaiser, M.J. 2017. Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance. PNAS. 114: 8301-8306.

Howarth, L.M., Roberts, C.M., Steadman, D.J., Hawkins, J.P., Beukers-Stewart, B.D. 2015. Effects of ecosystem protection on scallop populations within a community-led temperate marine reserve. MABI-D-14-00592R3 . Available at: https://pure.york.ac.uk/portal/files/49894421/MABI_D_14_00592R3.pdf

ndes, F., Kaiser, M.J. and Murray, L.G. 2016. Quantification of the indirect effects of scallop dredge fisheries on a brown crab fishery. Marine Environmental Research 119, 136-143.

Hervs, A., Nimmo, F., Southall, T., Macintyre, P., 2012. The SSMO Shetland inshore brown & velvet crab, lobster and scallop fishery Public Certification Report. Inverness, UK.

ICES. 2016. Report of the ICES Scallop Assessment Working Group (WGScallop), 3-7 October 2016,Aberdeen, UK.ICES CM 2016/ACOM: 24. 39 pp.

ICES. 2017. Interim Report of the Scallop Assessment Working Group (WGSCALLOP), 10-12 October 2017, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. ICES CM 2017/SSGEPD:25. 18 pp.

Curtis, H., Quintana, M.M., Motova, A. Witteveen, A. 2017. Seafish Economic Analysis: UK king scallop dredging sector 2008 - 2016 2nd Edition, final 2016 data. Report for Seafish. Seafish Report No. SR716. Available at: http://www.seafish.org/media/Publications/2nd_Edition_Scallop_report_11May2018.pdf

Poseidon. 2013. A review of the Scottish scallop fishery. Report for Marine Scotland. Lymington Hampshire. Available at: https://www.gov.scot/Resource/0045/00450683.pdf

Marine Scotland. 2014. Fish and Shellfish Stocks 2014 Edition. Available at: https://www.gov.scot/Resource/0045/00458803.pdf