Scallop, King, scallops

Pecten maximus

Method of production — Caught at sea
Capture method — Dredge
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — Isle of Man
Stock detail

Territorial waters (3-12nm)


Picture of Scallop, King, scallops

Sustainability rating four info

Sustainability overview

The Isle of Man’s Department of Environment, Food and Agriculture (DEFA) have suggested that more management is required to sustain the stock. A significant increasing number of vessels over six years have been of serious concern for the fishery. Therefore, the Isle of Man has cut the king scallop fishing licences by nearly half from 156 to about 88. Due to the increased concerns for the King Scallop fishery in recent seasons, DEFA have appointed a Joint Scallop Management Board. The board will be formed of fishermen and scientists and will manage both queen and king scallops. The Isle of Man has implemented good habitat management however, until recently, too many dredgers have been fishing.

Biology

King scallops are bivalve molluscs found in a range of depths from shallow waters in sea lochs to over 100m. They inhabit sandy-gravel and gravel seabeds. They have 2 shells or valves, the upper being flat, and the under or right valve, cup shaped. They are hermaphrodites (i.e. both male and female) and become fully mature at about 3 years old (80 to 90mm in length). Spawning occurs in the warmer months, from April to September. The species can grow to more than 20cm in length and live for more than 20 years, although average sizes are in the range of 10-16cm.

Stock information

Criterion score: 1 info

Stock Area

Isle of Man

Stock information

In recent seasons, the number of vessels and effort has increased in the fishery, concurrent with declining landings-per-unit-effort (LPUE), prompting concerns within the fishing industry. Landings have increased steadily over this time and effort levels are considered to be too high to sustainably maintain the fishery. The Isle of Man’s Department for Environment, Food and Agriculture believe that the fishery is fished at an unsustainable level. There are currently no reference points, however, there is increased concern for stock biomass and fishing mortality.

Management

Criterion score: 0.25 info

Fish catches landed by the ring-netters are largely processed by three companies based in Cornwall and one based in Plymouth. They have either made exclusive fish supply arrangements with individual owners of vessels, and/or may operate their own vessels to supply them. The fish processing companies play a key role in matching the supply of sardines to the market demand, and consequently the setting of the price which is paid to fishermen for their fish. At times, they may instruct skippers to reduce or stop the supply of fish to them. The catches of sardines taken in recent years were widely believed by those in the industry to be at about the right level in respect of their demand by the local fish processors and what they were prepared to pay for them.

Capture Information

Criterion score: 0.5 info

King scallops are fished using Newhaven dredges which have teeth to rake out and capture king scallops out of the seabed, into a chain mesh bag. Over 75% of the megafauna encountered by scallop dredges remains on the seafloor and is often not recorded. Isle of Man king scallop bycatch mainly comprises queen scallop, common starfish, cuckoo skate, sea urchin and curled octopus. Other main bycatch are brown crabs. They are particularly vulnerable to capture because the teeth (found on king scallop dredgers) dig out crabs which buried in the sediment. To prevent their capture, Manx dredgers have curfews at night (when edible crabs are most active).

The Isle of Man has marine habitats includes many biogenic habitats such as horse mussel beds and maerl reefs which are very important for processes such as nutrient cycling and provide complex habitats for juveniles. These habitats can be extremely vulnerable to bottom-towed fishing gears. Generally, the more intensely these habitats are fished, the greater declines in species richness, diversity and abundance.

References

Bloor, I.S.M. and Kaiser, M.J. 2016. Predicted impacts of proposed management measures in the Isle of Man s Pecten maximus fishery to be introduced in the 2016/2017 fishing season. Fisheries & Conservation Report No. 64, Bangor University. pp. 10.

Boyle K., Kaiser M.J., Thompon S., Murray L.G. and Duncan P.F. 2016. Spatial variation in ?sh and invertebrate bycatches in ascallop trawl ?shery. Journal of Shell?sh Research 35, 7 - 15 Fish and invertebrate by-catch in the crab pot fishery in the Isle of Man, Irish Sea (PDF Download Available). Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319652379_Fish_and_invertebrate_by-catch_in_the_crab_pot_fishery_in_the_Isle_of_Man_Irish_Sea [accessed Sep 20, 2017].

Bangor University. 2016. Fisheries and Conservation Science Group: Scallop fisheries: Fishery. Accessed on 10.08.2017. Available at: http://fisheries-conservation.bangor.ac.uk/iom/scallops.php.en#fishery-tab

Dignan, S.P., Bloor, I.S.M., Murray, L.G. and Kaiser, M.J. (2014). Environmental impacts of demersal otter trawls targeting queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis) in the Isle of Man territorial sea. Fisheries & Conservation Report No. 35, Bangor University. pp. 25.

Hiddink, J.G., Jennings, S., Sciberras, M., Szostek, C.L., Hughes, K.M., Ellis, N., Rijnsdorp, A.D., McConnaughey, R.A., Mazor, T., Hilborn, R., Collie, J.S., Pitcher, C.R., Amoroso, R.O., Parma, A.M., Suuronen, P., Kaiser, M.J., 2017. Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 114, 8301-8306. doi:10.1073/pnas.1618858114

Hinz, H., Murray, L.G. Gell, F., Hanley, L., Horton, N., Whiteley, H., Kaiser. M.J. Seabed habitats around the Isle of Man. Fisheries & Conservation report No. 12, Bangor University. pp.29

Howarth, L. M. & Stewart, B. D. 2014. The dredge fishery for scallops in the United Kingdom (UK): effects on marine ecosystems and proposals for future management. Report to the Sustainable Inshore Fisheries Trust. Marine Ecosystem Management Report no. 5, University of York, 54 pp

Bangor University. 2017. Fisheries and Conservation Science Group: Scallop Fisheries: Fishery. Available at: http://fisheries-conservation.bangor.ac.uk/iom/scallops.php.en#fishery-tab

BBC. 2017. Isle of Man cuts king scallop fishing licences. Available at: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-isle-of-man-37608573

Bangor University. 2016. Fisheries and Conservation Science Group: Scallop fisheries: Closed Area Monitoring. Accessed on 10.08.2017. Available at: http://fisheries-conservation.bangor.ac.uk/iom/scallops.php.en#current_projects-tab

Bangor University. 2011. How effective is management of the Isle of Man scallop fishery? Available at: http://fisheries-conservation.bangor.ac.uk/iom/documents/6_000.pdf

Fishing News. 2017. ISLE OF MAN: NEW MANAGEMENT MEASURES FOR SCALLOP FISHERY. Available at: http://fishingnews.co.uk/news/isle-man-new-management-measures-scallop-fishery/2/

ICES. 2016. Report of the ICES Scallop Assessment Working Group (WGScallop) 3-7 October 2016 Aberdeen. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2016/WGScallop/01%20WGScallop%202016%20Report.pdf

Isle of Man Government. 2017. Marine Nature Reserves. Available at: https://www.gov.im/about-the-government/departments/environment-food-and-agriculture/protected-sites/marine-nature-reserves

Isle of Man Government. 2016. Isle of Man king scallop fishery. Available at: https://www.gov.im/news/2016/nov/03/isle-of-man-king-scallop-fishery/

Isle of Man Government. 2017. Daily catch limit for king scallop fishery assisted sustainability . Available at: https://www.gov.im/news/2017/jan/26/daily-catch-limit-for-king-scallop-fishery-assisted-sustainability/

Isle of Man Government. 2016. Measures to ensure sustainability of king scallop fishery and introduction of inshore marine zoning plan. Available at: https://www.gov.im/news/2016/oct/10/measures-to-ensure-sustainability-of-king-scallop-fishery-and-introduction-of-inshore-marine-zoning-plan/

Island Shellfish. 2017. King and Queen Scallop board appointed. Available at: http://www.isleofmanqueenies.co.uk/king-queen-scallop-board-appointed/

Isle of Man Government. 2017. Isle of Man king scallop fishery. Available at: https://www.gov.im/categories/business-and-industries/commercial-fishing/iom-licencing/isle-of-man-king-scallop-fishery/

Isle of Man Government. 2017. Isle of Man trials new fisheries data management system. Available at: https://www.gov.im/news/2017/jun/02/isle-of-man-trials-new-fisheries-data-management-system

Isle of Man Government. 2016. Proposals for Future Management of the Isle of Man King Scallop Fishery. Available at: https://www.gov.im/media/1357351/proposals-for-the-future-management-of-the-isle-of-man-king-scallop-fishery.pdf

Isle of Man Government. 2017. Scallop advisory board will help ensure sustainability. Available at: https://www.gov.im/news/2017/apr/24/scallop-advisory-board-will-help-ensure-sustainability/?iomg-device=Mobile

MMO. 2017. Evidence requirement R046: Impact of external pressures on fisheries in Western Waters (area 7). Available at: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/647357/Impact_of_external_pressures_on_fisheries_in_Western_Waters__area_7_.pdf.

Sciberras, M., Hinz, H., Bennell, J., Jenkins, S., Hawkins, S., Kaiser, M., 2013. Benthic community response to a scallop dredging closure within a dynamic seabed habitat. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 480, 83-98. doi:10.3354/meps10198

Seafish. 2017. Seafish Economic Analysis: UK king scallop dredging sector 2008-2016. Edinburgh, UK. Available at: http://seafish.org/media/Publications/Scallop_report_FINAL.pdf

http://www.sealifebase.org/summary/Pecten-maximus.html