Capture method — Demersal otter trawl
Capture area — Western Indian Ocean (FAO 51)
Stock area — India
Stock detail —
The Indian squid fishery is data-deficient but likely, fully-fished. Stock assessments are often out-of-date or not national assessments. Bottom trawls in India cause large-scale habitat destruction on corals and capture large amounts of bycatch including endangered species e.g. turtles and large amounts of small-sized and juvenile species (called trash fish). India has begun a process to phase out bottom trawls. Management measures are in place but poor enforcement undermines progress, rendering it ineffective. There are high risks of Illegal, Unreported, and Unregulated fishing.
The Indian squid are distributed throughout the Red Sea and Arabian Sea, extending from Mozambique to the South China and the Philippines Sea and north towards Taiwan. They are found at depths of 0-170 m in bentho-pelagic habitats. They have a highly complex stock structure, high natural mortality, high growth rate, a short life-cycle but are not as fecund as other squid species. Indian squid vary in biology between east and west India: though there is not enough evidence currently available to prove that they are separate genetic stocks. Indian squid mature at around 90-130 mm mantle length (ML) for females and 70-150 mm ML for males and can produce between 740 - 14,924 eggs and they spawn all year round. They eat a wide variety of species and can even be cannibals.
U. duvaucelii is the most abundant squid species in Indian waters and the most common loliginid squid in Indo-Pacific waters. It is exploited by artisanal and commercial fisheries in India, Thailand, the Andamen Sea and Gulf of Aden. Though India is likely to catch the largest catch of Indian squid in the Indo-Pacific. The Indian squid are characterised by high natural mortality rates, high growth rates and a short life cycle. There is no IUCN assessment for the stock and the last full assessment for India was conducted in 1993. Since then, there have been numerous regional studies conducted, suggesting varied results, mostly stating that stocks are fully-fished, though a study finalised in February 2016 concluded that southwest Indian stocks are abundant.
The main organisations which manage Indian fisheries include the Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute (CMFRI), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) and the Ministry of Agriculture. Fisheries management is legislated by the National Marine Fishing Regulation Act though fisheries legislation and regulations are managed by state governments. The U.S. Coast Guard responsible for policing the EEZ.
It is difficult to measure the effectiveness of management as stocks are assessed sporadically across the country. However, there are no harvest control rules for most species, including cephalopods. There are no national formal reference points for cephalopod species, though reference points are estimated in some regional stock assessments. Management does not incorporate a precautionary approach and there are no rebuilding plans in the event when the stock is depleted. Cephalopods are caught as bycatch in trawl nets along the Indian coast. Due to lack of targeted cephalopod fisheries, it is difficult to set management measures specifically for cephalopods and therefore effort is a preferred management method, followed by gear requirements. Studies advise that commercial cephalopods fisheries are best managed by effort limitations. IUU fishing and discards are significant concerns in Indian fisheries and therefore, true effort and mortality are unknown. This presents serious challenges for management. Therefore, impacts of gear on bycatch, habitat and ecosystems vary vastly depending on gear type, location and management. Management varies by state, measures include seasonal/area closures, gear restrictions for trawls (mesh size regulations of 35mm cod-ends, vessel restrictions, Turtle Excluder Devices (TED) trawl licenses and gear conversions and Bycatch Reduction Devices. However, management measures are often not enforced, do not follow scientific advice and are sporadically legislated. Since cephalopods are caught as bycatch in trawl nets along the Indian coast, opposed to targeted fisheries, it is difficult to set management measures specifically for cephalopods and therefore effort is a preferred management method, followed by gear requirements. Studies suggested that the fishery requires effort limits and a ban of large trawlers in shallow water was also suggested.
India’s coastal fisheries are open access which are at greater risk to overfishing as they lack adequate monitoring and enforcement systems. Studies advise that commercial cephalopods fisheries are best managed by effort limitations.
Governance is improving in some fisheries with increased stakeholder participation and publications of catch statistics though there is a lack of dealing with conflicts in management.
Trawls are widely reported to cause negative impacts on marine ecosystems and non-target species. The diversity found in bycatch in bottom trawls is expected to be three times higher than the target catch. This is exacerbated in tropical countries where biodiversity may be higher. Turtle Excluder Devices (TED) trawl licenses and gear conversions and Bycatch Reduction Devices are implemented. However, management measures are often not enforced, do not follow scientific advice and are sporadically legislated resulting in continued findings of dead turtles. There are a lack of data about the impacts of trawling of ecosystems associated with Indian squid fisheries and the ecology of the Indian squid. In some regions of the world, squid have been considered as an exceptional species and therefore, more research is required to determine the impacts of fishing on the ecosystem. However, India is making large headway in phasing out bottom trawl fisheries and has already implemented temporary bans in Kerala following fish shortages.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.Abalone
Clam, Manila (Farmed)
Crab, brown or edible
Crawfish, Red Swamp
Lobster, Norway, Langoustine, Dublin Bay prawn or scampi
Mussel, mussels (Farmed)
Oyster, Native, oysters (Caught at sea)
Oyster, Native, oysters (Farmed)
Oyster, Pacific, oysters
Prawn, King (whiteleg), prawns
Prawn, Northern, prawns
Prawn, Tiger prawns (Farmed)
Scallop, King, scallops
Scallop, Queen, scallops
Squid, Japanese flying
http://www.fishsource.com/fishery/summary?fishery=Indian+squid+-+stock+units+undefined+%28Country%3A+IN%3B+Gear%3A+LHP_hdl%3B%29#Environment and Biodiversity
http://www.seafish.org/rass/print.php?id=1249§ion=all&action=print - Seafish jig fishery loligo chinensis
Forsythe JW, Kangas N, Hanlon RT (2004) Does the California market squid, Loligo opalescens, spawn naturally during the day or at night? A note on the successful use of ROVs to obtain basic fisheries biology data. Fish Bull (Wash DC) 102:389-392
Rich, C., Longcore, T., 2013. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press.