Hake, European

Merluccius merluccius

Method of production — Caught at sea
Capture method — Demersal otter trawl
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — Bay of Biscay to Northern North Sea (Northern Stock)
Stock detail — IIIa, IV, VI, VII, VIIIa,b,d.
Picture of Hake, European

Sustainability rating two info

Sustainability overview

The spawning-stock biomass (SSB) has increased significantly since 2006 and is well above historical estimates. Fishing mortality has decreased sharply in recent years and has been below F MSY since 2012. Discards of young hake can be substantial in some areas, and need to be minimised with a view to increasing the long term yield of the fishery. Hake has low resilience to fishing. Avoid eating immature fish below about 50cm, and during their breeding season, February to July.

Biology

Hake belongs to a group of fish known collectively as Merluccidae. There is only one species, European hake, found in European seas. European hake is widely distributed over the Northeast Atlantic shelf. Hake is a top predator and cannibalistic. It is a late maturing fish, spawning from February to July in northern waters. There are two major nursery areas: the Bay of Biscay and off southern Ireland. As they approach maturity, hake move into deeper waters offshore. Hake can attain a length of 100-180 cm, with a weight of 11-15 kg. Females mature at 5-6 years at about 50 cm.

Stock information

Stock Area

Bay of Biscay to Northern North Sea (Northern Stock)

Stock information

There was a pronounced stock decline in the 1980s, with spawning-stock biomass (SSB) hitting a historical low in the early 1990s. A recovery plan was introduced for the stock in 2004. The spawning-stock biomass (SSB) has increased significantly since 2006 and is well above historical estimates. Fishing mortality (F) has decreased significantly after 2005, and has been below FMSY since 2012. The recruitment (R) estimate for 2016 is above average. Given the expansion of the stock into northern areas and it's exploitation by several countries there is potential that not all catches are reported for this stock. Biological sampling from these areas is also limited. Discarding of juvenile hake can be substantial in some areas and fleets. Discarding of large individuals has increased in recent years because of quota restrictions in certain fleets. ICES advises that when the MSY approach is applied, catches in 2018 should be no more than 115 335 tonnes (123 777 tonnes in 2017).

Management

A recovery plan for the stock was agreed by the EU in 2004. The plan has not yet been evaluated by ICES and is currently using target values that are now considered no longer appropriate. Scientists suggest Total Allowable Catches (TACs) have been ineffective in regulating the fishery in recent years as landings greatly exceed the TACs. Because of quota restrictions in certain fleets discarding of large fish, although above the Minimum Landing Size, has increased in recent years. Measures to improve selectivity towards larger fish is also required to reduce discarding of juvenile hake which can be substantial.

Capture Information

Hake is caught in mixed fisheries together with megrim, anglerfish and Nephrops. Discards of juvenile hake can be substantial in some areas and fleets. Mortality of small fish could be reduced by introducing measures to increase gear selectivity and reduce catches of unwanted fish, e.g. by increasing mesh size. Since the introduction of high vertical opening trawls in the mid-1990s, no significant changes in fishing technology have been introduced. There is a potential for damage to the seabed from trawling. Trawling is also associated with discarding of unwanted fish, i.e. undersized and/or non-quota and/or over-quota species. The minimum landing size for hake in EU waters is 27cm (30cm in Skagerrak/Kattegat). The size at which approximately 50% of females mature however, is 50+ cm, which means that the MLS should probably be reviewed.

Alternatives

Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.

Basa, Tra, Catfish or Vietnamese River Cobbler
Bass, seabass (Farmed)
Bream, Gilthead (Farmed)
Cod, Atlantic Cod
Coley, Saithe
Haddock
Hake, Cape
Hake, European
Japanese amberjack, Yellowtail or Seriola
Pollack or Lythe
Pollock, Alaska, Walleye
Pouting or Bib
Sturgeon (Farmed)
Tilapia
Whiting

References

ICES Advice 2017 http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2017/2017/hke.27.3a46-8abd.pdf