Tuna, albacore

Thunnus alalunga

Method of production — Caught at sea
Capture method — Longline
Capture area — South Pacific (FAO 81,87,71,77)
Stock area — American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji,French Polynesia, High Seas, New Zealand
Stock detail

Certified fleets only


Certification

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)


Picture of Tuna, albacore

Sustainability rating two info

Sustainability overview

The South Pacific albacore stock was last carried out in 2015 and indicated that similar to previous years, the fishery is in a healthy state and not overfished nor subject to overfishing. This stock straddles two jurisdictions. In 2015, the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) limited the number of fishing vessels actively fishing for South Pacific albacore to 2005 or recent historical (2000-2004) levels. At the same time, an interim target reference point was meant to have been adopted but this has thus far not been agreed although a limit reference point of has been adopted. The lack of a target reference point has prevented progress on the development of a harvest strategy, and increased catches may reduce catch per unit effort. There are no specific measures for the area of the fishery in the area managed by the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). About 96% of the catch is taken in pelagic longline fisheries which can be associated with significant bycatch of other billfish and vulnerable species such as sharks, turtles, birds. Whilst there are some mitigation measures in place to reduce the impact, monitoring and reporting of interactions is insufficient to evaluate the effectiveness of these measures. There is 5% observer coverage on large longliners, but 20% is considered to be the minimum to be effective.

This rating is specific to the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified fleets of American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, High Seas, New Zealand Solomon Islands. Measures in place to reduce bycatch and improved documentation and reporting enables these certified components to be better rated.

Biology

Tuna belong to the family Scombridae. They are large, oceanic fish and are seasonally migratory, some making trans-oceanic journeys. Albacore are found throughout the world’s temperate, sub-tropical and tropical oceans, although they are less common in the tropics. They are found from the surface to a depth of 600m where they often form mixed schools with skipjack, yellowfin and bluefin tuna. They grow more slowly than skipjack and yellowfin tuna, reaching a maximum size of 140cm, 60kg in weight and maximum age of 15 years. Albacore mature when about 90cm length and 4-5 years old. Spawning normally occurs between January and July.

Stock information

Criterion score: 0 info

Stock Area

American Samoa, Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji,French Polynesia, High Seas, New Zealand

Stock information

Albacore in the South Pacific is assessed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and jointly managed by the Western and Central Pacific Fishery Commission (WCPFC) and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). Annual catch estimates for albacore in the south Pacific as a whole peaked in 2010 at 91,984 t. The provisional 2016 total south Pacific catch was 71,407 mt, a decrease from the previous few years. Catch by longliners represented 97% of the catch weight, with troll fisheries accounting for mush of the rest.

The latest stock assessment was carried out in 2015, and extended from 1960 to 2013. It indicated that similar to previous years, the fishery is in a healthy state and not overfished (Spawning biomass, SB at 2.86 SBmsy) nor subject to overfishing (Fishing mortality, F, at 0.39 Fmsy). Estimated maximum sustainable yield (MSY) is 76,800t. If 2015 fishing effort levels continue into the future, the stock is predicted to continue to decline on average, with SB likely to fall to 35% of unfished levels in 2033 (but remain above the limit reference point of 20%). WCPFC’s scientific committee advises that longline fishing mortality and longline catch be reduced to avoid further decline in the vulnerable biomass so that economically viable catch rates can be maintained, especially for longline catches of adult albacore. A new assessment is expected in 2018.

Management

Criterion score: 0.25 info

Most tuna stocks range across and are accessed by numerous coastal states, making harmonised and effective management of these individual stocks very difficult. As a result, intergovernmental Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) have been established. There are five main tuna RFMOs worldwide and it is their responsibility to carry out data collection, scientific monitoring and management of these fisheries. The responsibility for the management of Albacore in the North Pacific is shared between the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) and the Western and Central Pacific Fishery Commission (WCPFC). Whilst these RFMOs are responsible for the development of management and conservation measures, the degree to which they are implemented, monitored and enforced still varies significantly between coastal states. For this reason, it is important to choose tuna that has been caught by vessels that are well regulated by their flag state.

America, Fiji and New Zealand all have Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified sustainable and well managed albacore fisheries.

The WCPFC scientific committee advises that although the stock is not overfished nor being subject to overfishing, longline fishing mortality and longline catch should be reduced to avoid further decline in the vulnerable biomass so that economically viable catch rates can be maintained, especially for longline catches of adult albacore. Estimates of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) are highly uncertain and projections have demonstrated that longline exploitable biomass, and hence CPUE, would fall sharply if catch and effort were increased to MSY levels. In 2015, WCPFC limited the number of fishing vessels actively fishing for South Pacific albacore to 2005 levels or 2000-2004 average levels. At the same time, an interim target reference point (TRP) was meant to have been adopted but this has been deferred. While a limit reference point has been adopted (spawning stock biomass at 20% of unfished levels), the lack of a TRP has prevented progress on the development of a harvest strategy, allowing the fishery to further decline both biologically and economically. Thus far, no measures have been introduced to record catches, and IATTC have no specific measures in place at all for this stock. Following recommendations from the scientific committee for performance indicators and monitoring strategies for South Pacific albacore, WCPFC have stated that they will work on a roadmap in 2018 to implement the elements needed for the effective conservation and management for the stock. The roadmap will use the revised 2018 stock assessment and will recommend an overall limit for the fishery, how it could be distributed and the actions required to achieve biological and economic stability, including a target reference point and harvest strategy.

Both the IATTC and WCPFC have the following additional management measures:
5% observer coverage is required on longliners greater than 20m, although this is considered to be too low for accurate data: a minimum of 20% coverage is recommended. In addition, data recorded by IATTC longliners is considered inadequate for scientific purposes and minimum data standards need to be identified and introduced.
To help address IUU: an IUU Vessel List is maintained as well as a register of authorised fishing vessels; transhipments at sea for most vessels are prohibited (some exemptions apply) and most other transhipments must be documented and observed as part of the regional observer programme. Countries are required to report annually on monitoring, control and compliance of management measures. The IATTC and WCPFC endeavour to work together to promote compatibility between their respective conservation and management measures across the Pacific.
In 2017, WCPFC introduced a Compliance Monitoring Scheme to assess and improve compliance with obligations, and penalise non-compliance.

Capture Information

Criterion score: 0.5 info

96% of albacore in the South Pacific is caught in pelagic longline fisheries.

Fleets certified sustainable by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) are subject to greater reporting requirements and need to demonstrate implementation of various mitigation and monitoring measures in order to achieve and maintain their certification.

Longlining targets larger, mature fish yet is often associated with the bycatch of vulnerable species such as seabirds, turtles and sharks. To address this, both the IATTC and the WCPFC require a number of mitigation measures.
Seabirds: Longliners must use one or more seabird bycatch mitigation measures from a set list of options, depending on vessel size and fishing location, including weighted branch line, bird scaring lines, and night setting. However, recommended best practice is for those three measures to be applied simultaneously.
Turtles: vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to promptly release turtles or to foster to recovery any sick or comatose turtles captured. WCPFC also requires the use of circle hooks for shallow set gear for swordfish to reduce turtle capture, however a study in 2017 noted that less than 1% of Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) longline effort is subject to mitigation, even though approximately 20% of the WCPO longline effort consists of shallow sets. IATTC have noted that mortality rates of turtles due to longlining are possibly greater for those that set their lines at shallower depths at night for albacore and swordfish, although WCPFC notes that there are significantly more deep sets than shallow sets and a lower chance of live release from deep sets.
Sharks: permissible sharks are to be fully utilized and no more than 5% of fins to total shark weight can be retained; there is a prohibition to land oceanic whitetips and silky sharks (and mobula rays in IATTC area); and countries must develop national plans of action to address the bycatch of sharks, turtles and seabirds. Shark lines are prohibited. For fisheries specifically targeting sharks, countries are required to develop management plans, demonstrating how they intend to avoid or reduce catches of highly depleted shark species. For the IATTC, any shark (whether alive or dead) caught that is not retained must be promptly released unharmed, following safe release requirements. There are special measures to protect silky sharks, including a limit on bycatch of silky sharks to a maximum of 20% of the total catch by fishing trip in weight. In 2016, WCPFC adopted measures to improve recording of manta and mobula rays discarded and released, and to treat these species as key shark species for assessment and research. The scientific committee has noted that target and limit reference points have not yet been established for pelagic sharks by WCPFC.
Monitoring and reporting is deficient in many fisheries, and the effectiveness of these measures has not been evaluated. In 2016 IATTC introduced stricter monitoring and reporting of catches of shark species, but the scientific committee continues to advise that shark data collection is inadequate and must be improved. The scientific committee has also recommended stricter requirements for seabird mitigation techniques and proof of effectiveness before new techniques are introduced.
There is 100% observer coverage on large purse seiners in the EPO so the data coming from these fleets should be useful and of high quality. Only 5% observer coverage is required on longliners greater than 20m in length, although the scientific committee recommends 20% coverage and improved standards of data collection.

References

Brouwer, S., Pilling, G., Williams, P., WCPFC Secretariat , 2017. Trends in the South Pacific albacore longline and troll fisheries, Document WCPFC-SC13-2017/SA-WP-08 for the Thirteenth Regular Session of the Scientific Committee of the Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 9 - 17 August 2017, Rarotonga, Cook Islands. 70 pp. Available at https://www.wcpfc.int/meetings/sc13 [Accessed on 27.11.2017]

ISSF, 2017. Status of the world fisheries for tuna: November 2017. ISSF Technical Report 2017-02A. International Seafood Sustainability Foundation, Washington, D.C., USA. 98 pp. Available at: https://iss-foundation.org/about-tuna/status-of-the-stocks/ [Accessed on 20.11.2017].

WCPFC, 2017. Conservation and Management Measures of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission. Available at https://www.wcpfc.int/conservation-and-management-measures [Accessed on 18.12.2017]

WCPFC, 2017. Provisional outcomes document, WCPFC14-2017-outcomes, from the Western & Central Pacific Fisheries Commission Fourteenth Regular Session (As at 18 December 2017), 3-7 December 2017, Manila, Philippines. 15 pp. Available at https://www.wcpfc.int/meetings/wcpfc14 {Accessed on 18.12.2017]

WCPFC, 2017. Summary Report of the Thirteenth Regular Session of the Scientific Committee of the Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 9 - 17 August 2017, Rarotonga, Cook Islands. 281 pp. Available at https://www.wcpfc.int/meetings/sc13 [Accessed on 27.11.2017]