Bass, seabass (Farmed)
Production country — Europe
Production method — Open net pen
Certification — GlobalGap certified
Turkey is a key producer of farmed sea bass. Seabass farmed in open net pens causes some environmental concerns. These concerns include pollution from both nutrients and organic matters that lead to environmental changes; escaped farmed fish; use of chemicals in production; interaction with local wildlife sometimes including lethal predator control and some concerns regarding regulatory controls. Seabass are carnivorous fish that require more fish in their diet that they actually produce, leading to a net loss of marine proteins and oils, the fish used to make their feed cannot be assured to be sourced from a sustainable supply. GlobalGap certification addresses a number of these issues.
Criterion Score: -1
Sea Bass are a fed species, requiring a commercial diet containing fish and vegetable proteins and oils. Sea bass produced to GlobalGap production standards cannot be assured to use responsible or sustainable feed however the main feed suppliers do have internal sourcing policies in place but their effectiveness cannot be verified. Sea bass require fishmeal and fish oil in their diet making them a net consumer of fish protein rather than producers .
Criterion Score: 0
Sea bass have a number of environmental impacts associated with their production, many of which are addressed by the Global Gap production standards in place. What is not known however is the risk of disease transfer to wild species in the vicinity of the cages. Also of concern is the effect on local predatory species.
Fish Health and Welfare
Criterion Score: 1
Fish welfare and humane slaughter requirements are in place within the GlobalGap standards for sea bass
Criterion Score: 2
Overall the management of sea bass production is evaluated to be only partially effective. There is a lack of Spatial Management that adequately incorporates aquaculture production and although there are regulations and/or criteria in place for many of the environmental impacts of production there is insufficient data to assess the overall effectiveness in areas of disease prevention and escapes.
Open net pen
Seabass are farmed in open net pens allows which allows for interaction with the surrounding environment and therefore has to be managed in such a way as to minimise negative environmental and ecological impacts.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.Basa, Tra, Catfish or Vietnamese River Cobbler
Bass, seabass (Farmed)
Bream, Gilthead (Farmed)
Cod, Atlantic Cod
Cod, Pacific Cod
Pollock, Alaska, Walleye
Bass or seabass belongs to a family of spiny-finned fish called Moronidae, which are closely related to groupers. Bass breed from March to mid-June, mostly in April, in British coastal and offshore waters. From January to March in the Bay of Biscay and from February to May in the English Channel and eastern Celtic Sea. It is a long-lived and slow growing species - up to 30 years of age, and can achieve a length of up to 1m with a weight of 12kg. Male bass mature at 31-35cm (aged 3-6 years) and females mature at 40-45cm (aged 5-8 years). Once mature, bass may migrate within UK coastal waters and occasionally further offshore. Increases in sea water temperature in recent decades has likely led to a more northerly distribution of seabass as it is now found further north into the North Sea. Climate warming may also have lengthened the time adult seabass spend in the summer feeding areas. After spawning, seabass tend to return to the same coastal sites each year.
ReferencesGlobal G. A. P., 2016. Global Gap Farm Assurance, All Farm Base- Aquaculture Module, Control Points and Compliance Criteria, English Version 5.0, Edition 5.0- 02 July 2016, Obligatory From 01 July 2016
Global G. A. P., 2016. Global Gap Compound Feed Manufacturing, General Rules, Addendum to Global Gap General Regulations, English Version 2.2, Valid from 01 August 2016
Jackson, D., Drumm, A., McEvoy, S., Jensen, ., Mendiola, D., Gabina, G., Borg, J. A., Papageorgiou, N., Karakassis, Y., Black, K. D., 2015. A pan-European valuation of the extent, causes and cost of escape events from sea cage fish farming. Aquaculture, 436:21-26
Toledo, Guedes, K., Sanchez-Jerez, P., Gonzalez-Lorenzo, G., Brito-Hernandez, A., 2009. Detecting the degree of establishment of a non-indigenous species in coastal ecosystems: Sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax escapes from sea cages in Canary Islands (Northeastern Central Atlantic). Hydrobiologia, 623:203-212
Arechavala-Lopez, P., Sanchez-Jerez, P., Bayle-Sempere, J. T., Uglem, I., Mladineo, I., 2013. Reared fish, farmed escapees and wild fish stocks - A triangle of pathogen transmission of concern to Mediterranean aquaculture management. Aquaculture Environment Interactions, 3:153-161
Arechavala-Lopez, P., Uglem, I., Fernandez-Jover, D., Bayle-Sempere, J. T., Sanchez-Jerez, P., 2012. Post-escape dispersion of farmed seabream (Sparus aurata L.) and recaptures by local fisheries in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Fisheries Research, 121-122:126-135
Mladineo, I., Segvi?, T., Grubisi?, L., 2009. Molecular evidence for the lack of transmission of the monogenean Sparicotyle chrysophrii (Monogenea, Polyopisthocotylea) and isopod Ceratothoa oestroides (Crustacea, Cymothoidae) between wild bogue (Boops boops) and cage-reared sea bream (Sparus aurata) and sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Aquaculture, 295:160-167
Panzarin, V., Fusaro, A., Monne, I., Cappellozza, E., Patarnello, P., Bovo, G., Capua, I., Holmes, E.C., Cattoli, G., 2012. Molecular epidemiology and evolutionary dynamics of betanodavirus in southern Europe. Infect Genet Evol 12:63-70
Subasinghe, R., 2009. Disease control in aquaculture and the responsible use of veterinary drugs and vaccines: The issues, prospects and challenges. The use of veterinary drugs and vaccines in Mediterranean Aquaculture, 11:5-11
Vendramin, N., Zrncic, S., Padros, F., Oraic, D., Breton, A. Le., Zarza, C., Olesen, N. J., 2016. Fish health in Mediterranean Aquaculture, past mistakes and future challenges. Bulletin of European Association of Fish Pathologists, 36:38-45