Oyster, Pacific, oysters (Farmed)
Production country — UK
Production method — Bottom & suspension culture
Updated: September 2019.
Pacific oysters farmed in the UK in suspended culture and bottom culture have some environmental impact and do not require any commercial feed sources as they get all their nutrient requirements from the surrounding water. Oyster aquaculture is entirely sea-based and habitat concerns are minimal. Recent oyster culture generally does not involve the use of chemicals and there is no concern about the impact of effluents. Juveniles are hatchery-based. Disease risk and parasite interactions are thought to be minimal and do not threaten regional level operations. However, there has been problems with escapes of Pacific oyster and there is concern that there will be an increase in wild populations with an increase in seawater temperature. Environmental regulations are in place and are largely effective, however, there is no independent certification available.
Criterion Score: 5 info
Farmed oysters do not require any commercial feed sources as they get all of their nutrient requirements from the surrounding water. They feed by filtering mainly microscopic algae (phytoplankton), but also some organic detritus in sea water.
Criterion Score: 4 info
Overall, Pacific Oyster aquaculture has some environmental impacts. Oysters are found in marine and brackish water and therefore culture is entirely sea-based and does not deplete freshwater supplies. Habitat concerns resulting from the physical infrastructure associated with on-bottom oyster culture include the alteration of hydrodynamics and current velocities, as well as reduced flow rates. However, the positive impacts of oyster beds through the provision of hard substrate through the provision of hard substrate for recruitment and refuge, outweigh the risks associated with increased sedimentation. Oysters growing in suspended culture also create favourable structures and habitats for other invertebrates and fishes.
Recent oyster culture generally does not entail the application of chemicals (i.e. antibiotics, pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers) to control fouling and predators or to prevent disease. Furthermore, the water in which chemicals would be used generally is not released to the marine environment. There is no evidence that discharges from oyster culture cause or contribute to cumulative impacts beyond the immediate vicinity of the farm. Furthermore, oyster farming may provide increased benefits through their extractive nature when cultured with other species.
Juveniles are supplied by hatcheries. Extensive research has not revealed any information about parasitic transfer of Pacific Oysters to Native Oyster populations, although this is not thought to be an issue. Disease outbreaks can and do occur, although they do not threaten regional level populations. There is also evidence of escapes and small fisheries have developed with the naturalization of the species. Presently, saltwater temperature is thought to limit the range and density of wild Pacific oysters in cooler temperature regions. However, with sea temperatures rising, they are now becoming more widespread. It is highly likely that they will continue to spread northwards throughout mainland Britain as a consequence. A variety of oyster predators exist among oyster farms, including echinoderms, snails, crabs, fishes and seabirds. A variety of methods are employed to reduce predation but there are no direct negative impacts on predatory species.
Fish Health and Welfare
Criterion Score: 1 info
Animal welfare is not applicable for shellfish as it is not covered by EU regulations on welfare. Humane slaughter has been carried out by RSPCA definitions.
Criterion Score: 2 info
Aquaculture policy in the UK is a devolved matter, with the separate administrations of Wales, England, Northern Ireland and Scotland responsible for its collective oversight. In England, the Marine Management Organisation is preparing marine plans for 11 predefined areas in England. The first of these plans were published in 2014 and all plans are due to be in place by 2021. Aquaculture production in Scotland is covered in the 2015 Scottish National Marine Plan and in Wales by the 2019 Welsh National Marine Plan. The Northern Ireland Marine Plan will come into effect by 2021.
In the UK, regulations regarding the environmental impacts of aquaculture are in place. This includes the Habitats Directive 92/43/EEC and the Birds Directive 2009/147/EC, which form the cornerstones of the EU’s nature conservation policy and protect valuable habitats and species. There is also regulation in place to cover the use of land and water resources, discharges including effluents and their impacts, disease management and biosecurity.
However, while regulation exists on species introduction, Defra are yet to declare a position on whether Pacific oysters are invasive or naturalised. Therefore, regulations are marked as being only partially effective. In the UK, there is currently no third party certification for Pacific oysters.
Bottom & suspension culture
Oysters are bred in hatcheries and then grown on in the sea - usually in semi-rigid plastic mesh bags, supported by steel trestles secured in intertidal waters. They can also be grown in suspended mesh nets.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.Abalone
Clam, Manila (Farmed)
Crab, brown or edible
Lobster, Norway, Langoustine, Dublin Bay prawn or scampi
Mussel, Chilean (Farmed)
Mussel, mussels (Farmed)
Oyster, Native, oysters (Caught at sea)
Oyster, Native, oysters (Farmed)
Oyster, Pacific, oysters (Caught at sea)
Oyster, Pacific, oysters (Farmed)
Prawn, King (whiteleg), prawns
Prawn, Northern prawns, Northern shrimp
Prawn, Tiger prawns (Farmed)
Scallop, King, scallops
Scallop, Queen, scallops
Squid, Japanese flying
Oysters belong to the commercially important group of bivalve molluscs which also includes mussels, clams and cockles. The Pacific oyster, now widely distributed, originated in north-eastern Asia. Pacific oysters, as with many oyster species, develop first as males, spawn, and then later develop into females. Spawning occurs in the summer.
ReferencesAdamson, E., Syvret, M., Woolmer, A. 2018. Shellfish Seed Supply for Aquaculture in the UK: Report on Views Collected from the Industry in 2017. 20p. Available at http://www.shellfish.org.uk/files/Literature/Projects-Reports/Report-on-UK-shellfish-seed-Fishmongers-Company-June-2018.pdf [Accessed on 08.09.2019].
Buschbaum, C., Cornelius, A. and Goedknegt, M. A. 2016. Deeply hidden inside introduced biogenic structures - Pacific oyster reefs reduce detrimental barnacle overgrowth on native blue mussels. Journal of Sea Research. 117 (20-26). Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1385110116300466 [Accessed on 08.09.2019].
CEFAS. 2012. Aquaculture statistics for the UK, with a focus on England and Wales. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/405469/Aquaculture_Statistics_UK_2012.pdf [Accessed on 08.08.2019].
Cook, E.J., Beveridge, C.M., Lamont, P., O'Higgins, T. and Wilding, T. 2014. Survey of Wild Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas in Scotland. Scottish Aquaculture Research Forum Report SARF099. Available at http://www.sarf.org.uk/cms-assets/documents/207056-140687.sarf099.pdf [Accessed on 07.08.2019].
DEFRA. 2015. United Kingdom multiannual national plan for the development of sustainable aquaculture. Available at https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/480928/sustainable-aquaculture-manp-uk-2015.pdf [Accessed on 09.08.2019].
Echweiler, N. and Christensen, H. T. 2011. Trade-off between increased survival and reduced growth for blue mussels living on Pacific oyster reefs. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 403(90-95) Available at https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022098111001894 [Accessed on 09.08.2019].
European Commission. 2012. Guidance on Aquaculture and Natura 2000. Available at https://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/sites/fisheries/files/docs/body/guidance-aquaculture-natura2000.pdf [Accessed on 08.08.2019].
FAO. 2005. National Aquaculture Legislation Overview: United Kingdom. Available at http://www.fao.org/fishery/legalframework/nalo_uk/en [Accessed on 08.08.2019].
FAO. 2005. Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793). Available at http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Crassostrea_gigas/en#tcNA009D [Accessed on 07.08.2019].
Forrest B.M., Elmetri I. and Clark K. 2007. Review of the Ecological Effects of Intertidal Oyster Aquaculture. Prepared for Northland Regional Council. Cawthron Report No. 1275, 25p. Available at http://envirolink.govt.nz/assets/Envirolink/216-NLRC25.pdf [Accessed on 06.08.2019].
Markert, A. and Wehrmann, A. 2009. Recently established Crassostrea-reefs verus native Mytilus-beds: differences in ecosystem engineering affects the macrofaunal communities (Wadden Sea of Lower Saxony, southern German Bight). Biological Invasions. 12(15-32). Available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-009-9425-4 [Accessed on 07.08.2019].
Miossec, L., Le Deuff, R M., and Goulletquer, P. 2009. Alien species alert: Crassostrea gigas (Pacific oyster). ICES Cooperative Research Report No. 299. 42 pp. Available at https://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/2009/rapport-6945.pdf [Accessed on 07.08.2019].
Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch. Oysters. Available at https://www.seafoodwatch.org/seafood-recommendations/groups/oysters?q=pacific%20oyster&t=pacific%20oyster&type=pacific&method=farmed#tab=seafood-watch [Accessed on 02.08.2019].
Scottish Government. 2017. Envrionmental Impacts. Available at https://www2.gov.scot/Topics/marine/Fish-Shellfish/18716/environmentalimpact [Accessed on 08.08.2019].
Seafish. 2008. Development of a Pacific Oyster Aquaculture Protocol for the UK - Technical Report. Available at https://www.seafish.org/media/Publications/POP_-_Technical_Report_Ver._2.pdf [Accessed on 09.08.2019].
Seafish. 2019. Oysters. Available at https://seafish.org/aquaculture/profile/23/oysters [Accessed on 02.08.2019].
The Glenmorangie Company. Dornoch Environmental Enhancement Project (DEEP). Available at http://www.theglenmorangiecompany.com/about-us/deep/ [Accessed on 08.08.2019].
Zero Waste Scotland. Case study: Integrated Multi-Trophic Aquaculture. Available at https://www.zerowastescotland.org.uk/sites/default/files/2870%20ZWS%20Bio%20Economy%20Loch%20Fyne%20Case%20Study%20AW%20FINAL%20HI%20RES.pdf [Accessed on 06.08.2019].
Zwerschke, N., Emmerson, M. C., Roberts, D. and O'Connor, N. E. 2016. Benthic assemblages associated with native and non-native oysters are similar. Marine Pollution Bulletin. 111(305-310). Available at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27377003 [Accessed on 07.08.2019].