Halibut, Atlantic (Farmed)
Production country — Norway
Production method — Open net pen
Certification — Global Gap certified
Atlantic halibut is widely farmed although in small quantities compared to other species. Unlike salmon and cod, halibut can be farmed in closed tanks as well as in open pens. Choose halibut farmed in closed, shore based production systems such as those used in Scotland, as environmental impacts of production are mitigated. Halibut do have a large dependency on fish to form the majority of their diet, and the fish required to make their feed cannot be assured to come from a sustainable supply. Scottish production is independently addressing this feed concern making it a good choice.
Criterion Score: -5
Atlantic halibut has a large dependency on fishmeal and fish oil in its diet. These ingredients, as well as those terrestrial ingredients that also form part of the diet, cannot be assured to be responsibly or sustainably sourced as this is not a requirement of the Global Gap standard at present, although sourcing recommendations are made
Criterion Score: 1
The Global Gap standard covers many areas of environmental performance within its criteria - chemical use including antibiotics, escapes and environmental impacts assessments. Where criteria may be lacking, such as discharges, the 2005 Norwegian Aquaculture Act comes into force. However, given the small scale nature of the halibut farming sector and the sparsity of research it is difficult to gain a fully informed picture. Lethal predator control is permitted by Global Gap but there is no data to indicate if this is practiced or not.
Fish Health and Welfare
Criterion Score: 1
Provisions are made within the Global Gap standard for both fish welfare and humane slaughter. These are contained within a Veterinary Health Plan
Criterion Score: 6
Norway has a comprehensive range of regulations in place for the aquaculture industry, including a Marine Spatial Planning Programme. The Aquaculture Act 2005 covers a wide range of environmental performance indicators. Despite the lack of publicly available information specifically relating to the Atlantic halibut sector it would appear that this small scale industry is well managed.
Open net pen
Farming in open net pens allows for interaction with the surrounding environment and, as such, has to be managed in such a way as to minimise negative environmental and ecological impacts.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.Dab
Halibut, Atlantic (Farmed)
Sole, Dover sole, Common sole
Turbot (Caught at sea)
Atlantic halibut, the largest of all flat fishes, is a thick-set, right-eyed (both eyes on the right-hand side of the body) flat fish in the family Pleuronectidae. It is distributed throughout the north Atlantic, particularly Norway, Faroes, Iceland and southern Greenland, but occurs as far south as Maine in north America and the Bay of Biscay in Europe. It can attain a length of 4.7m and more than 300kg, but it is considered slow growing in the wild. Spawning occurs during winter and early spring. Atlantic halibut become sexually mature at 10-14 years, at around 1.4m in length. The oldest recorded halibut has been 55years of age yet models indicate that they could live for nearly 100years! It has been a heavily targeted fishery for more than 100 years and with slow growth rates, high age at maturity and a population doubling time of around 14 years, is highly susceptible to overfishing. IUCN list Atlantic halibut as Endangered (1996) and the species appears on the US National Marine Fisheries Service list of species of concern. Additionally the Project Inshore Phase II Report (2013) noted that under the MSC Risk Based Framework, the species was ranked as the 6th most susceptible species, behind some sharks and rays.
References"GGAP V5.0 (2016) Global Gap Farm Assurance, All Farm Base- Aquaculture Module, Control Points and Compliance Criteria, English Version 5.0, Edition 5.0- 02 July 2016, Obligatory From 01 July 2016.
FAO FishstatJ. Available online at: http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/software/fishstatj/en. Accessed 08/07/2019
Seafish Aquaculture Tool. Available online at: https://www.seafish.org/aquaculture/profile/36/atlantic-halibut. Accessed 08/07/2016
Pauly, Daniel and Watson, Reg (2009) ""Spatial Dynamics of Marine Fisheries"" In: Simon A. Levin (ed.) The Princeton Guide to Ecology. Pages 501-509
Alistair Barge, Gigha halibut. Personal communication via email. 07/08/2018
FAO. National Aquaculture Legislation Overview. Norway. Available online at: http://www.fao.org/fishery/legalframework/nalo_norway/en#tcNB00CB Accessed 11/07/2019
Aivind Bergh*, Frank Nilsen, Ole B. Samuelsen.2001. Diseases, prophylaxis and treatment of the Atlantic halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus: a review. DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS. Vol. 48: 57-74, 2001
UNESCO. Marine Spatial Planning Programme. Norway. Available online at: http://msp.ioc-unesco.org/world-applications/europe/norway/. Accessed 11/07/2019 "