Turbot (Farmed)

Psetta maxima

Method of production — Farmed
Production country — Europe
Production method — Onshore open circuit system
Certification — Global Gap certified
Picture of Turbot (Farmed)

Sustainability rating two info

Sustainability overview

Unlike open net pen fish farming such as salmon, turbot are farmed in enclosed land-based flow through systems that have little or no direct environmental impact. However turbot are a carnivorous species which require a high percentage of fishmeal and fish-oil in their diet, which makes them a net user of fish protein rather than a net provider. The wild fish on which they rely cannot be assured to come from a sustainable supply.

Feed Resources

Criterion Score: -4

Turbot has a large dependency on fishmeal and fish oil in its diet. These ingredients, as well as those terrestrial ingredients that also form part of the diet, cannot be assured to be responsibly or sustainably sourced as this is not a requirement of the Global Gap standard at present, although sourcing recommendations are made.

info

Environmental Impacts

Criterion Score: 1

The Global Gap standard covers many areas of environmental performance within its criteria - chemical use including antibiotics, escapes and environmental impacts assessments. Where criteria may be lacking, such as discharges, the national legislation of Spain (the main producer of farmed turbot) comes into force. However, given the relatively small scale nature of the turbot farming sector and the sparsity of research it is difficult to gain a fully informed picture. Lethal predator control is permitted by Global Gap but there is no data to indicate if this is practiced or not. Disease outbreaks are possible but there is little data to ascertain the extent of this, however due to the small industry it is likely to be low impact.

info

Fish Health and Welfare

Criterion Score: 1

Provisions are made within the Global Gap standard for both fish welfare and humane slaughter. These are contained within a Veterinary Health Plan.

info

Management

Criterion Score: 6

Spain (the main producer of farmed turbot in Europe) has a comprehensive range of regulations in place for the aquaculture industry, including a National Plan programme that includes aquaculture. Despite the lack of publicly available information specifically relating to the turbot farming sector it would appear that this relatively small scale industry is well managed.

info

Production method

Onshore open circuit system

Spain (the main producer of farmed turbot in Europe) has a comprehensive range of regulations in place for the aquaculture industry, including a National Plan programme that includes aquaculture. Despite the lack of publicly available information specifically relating to the turbot farming sector it would appear that this relatively small scale industry is well managed.

Alternatives

Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.

Dab
Halibut, Atlantic (Farmed)
Halibut, Pacific
Megrim
Plaice
Sole, Dover sole, Common sole
Sole, Lemon
Turbot (Caught at sea)
Turbot (Farmed)

Biology

Turbot belongs to a small family of left-eyed flatfish (both eyes on the left of the body), known collectively as the family Scophthalmidae. This family of fish is confined to the North Atlantic basin and includes megrim and brill. Turbot becomes sexually mature at an age of 3-5 years and in most parts of its range spawns in April to August, females each producing up to 10-15 million eggs. In the North Sea reaching a length of c. 30 cm (males) and 35 cm (females) in about 3 years. In the Baltic Sea growth is slower, and the males become sexually mature at a length of 15 cm, the females at 20 cm. For some reason males are generally more abundant than females. Turbot can attain a length of 1m and a weight of 25 kg. Females are larger than males at any given age. Maximum reported age 25 years.

References

"GGAP V5.0 (2016) Global Gap Farm Assurance, All Farm Base- Aquaculture Module, Control Points and Compliance Criteria, English Version 5.0, Edition 5.0- 02 July 2016, Obligatory From 01 July 2016

FAO. Cultured Aquaculture Species Factsheets. Turbot. Available online at: http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Psetta_maxima/en Accessed 15/07/2019

Remko Oosterveld. Global Gap. Pers. Comm. 15/07/2019

Europa. Fisheries and Aquaculture in Europe. 2012. Turbot factsheet. Available online at: https://ec.europa.eu/fisheries/sites/fisheries/files/docs/body/turbot_en.pdf. Accessed 15/07/2019

FAO 2005-2019. National Aquaculture Legislation Overview. Spain. National Aquaculture Legislation Overview (NALO) Fact Sheets. Text by Olivert, A.A. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 16 May 2005. [Cited 16 July 2019]. "