Trout, Brown or Sea

Salmo trutta

Method of production — Farmed
Production country — UK
Production method — Open net pen
Picture of Trout, Brown or Sea

Sustainability rating three info

Sustainability overview

Rainbow trout is the most widely farmed trout species in the UK as it is produced for human consumption, however brown trout is also farmed in this country but mainly for restocking purposes. Brown trout is farmed in freshwater in open net pens tanks, pods and raceways adjacent to a good water supply such as a river. Water diverted into the farm in a constant flow and treated before being discharged. It takes about 7 months for trout to reach harvesting size of 300-400g in this system. Farming in open systems can have negative environmental impacts through direct discharges of organic matters and nutrients leading to local environmental changes and farmed fish escapes, however in the case of trout, all the described potential impacts are of limited scale, since this aquaculture sector is quite limited in its range and volume.

Feed Resources

Criterion Score: -2

The sustainability of the marine and other feed ingredients cannot be assured and sea trout has a high demand for fish within its diet.

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Environmental Impacts

Criterion Score: 0

There is a very small production of sea trout in the UK (41 tonnes in 2016), as such the environmental impacts are minimal. Sea trout is farmed under license as with Atlantic salmon.

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Fish Health and Welfare

Criterion Score: 2

Welfare and slaughter standards are included in the British Quality Trout standards.

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Management

Criterion Score: 1

There is no regional level planning but there is a range of regulations to address most of the issues of environmental concern and these are deemed to be effective. There is no independent certification for this species.

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Production method

Open net pen

Rainbow trout is the most widely farmed trout species in the UK as it is produced for human consumption, however brown trout is also farmed in this country but mainly for restocking purposes.

Alternatives

Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.

Anchovy, anchovies
Arctic char
Herring or sild
Salmon, Atlantic (Farmed)
Salmon, Chinook, King Salmon
Salmon, Chum, Keta, Calico or Dog salmon
Salmon, Coho , Silver, White
Salmon, Pink, Spring , humpback
Salmon, Sockeye , Red Salmon, Bluebacks, Redfish
Sprat, whitebait
Swordfish
Trout, Rainbow
Tuna, albacore
Tuna, bigeye
Tuna, skipjack
Tuna, yellowfin

Biology

Brown or sea trout belongs to the salmon family. It is anadromous i.e. adapted to life in both fresh and sea water. There are 2 types - the migratory sea trout and the non-migratory brown trout. It matures in 3-4 years and can grow up to 140cm and live up to 38 years. Spawns in winter from October to January.

References

Tacon A.G.J. 2005. State of information on salmon aquaculture feed and the environment. Available online at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228624313_State_of_information_on_salmon_aquaculture_and_the_environment

FAO 2012-2018. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Salmo trutta. Cultured Aquatic Species Information Programme. Text by Vandeputte, M. & Labb, L. In: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department [online]. Rome. Updated 1 January 2012. [Cited 12 September 2018].

Water Environment (Controlled Activities) (Scotland) Regulations 2011 (CAR). Available online at: [http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2011/209/contents/made] enforced by SEPA [http://www.sepa.org.uk/water/water_regulation/regimes/aquaculture/marine_aquaculture.aspx]

Marine Scotland. Scottish Fish Farm Production Survey. 2011. Available online at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2012/09/8092/6

Marine Scotland. Seal Licensing. Available online at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/marine/Licensing/SealLicensing

Marine Scotland. Marine Planning. Available online at: http://www.scotland.gov.uk/Topics/marine/seamanagement/marineact/marineplanning

Aquaculture and Freshwater Fisheries Act (2012) , WEWS Act 2003. EIA (Scotland) Regulation 1999, Alien and Locally Absent Species in Aquaculture (2007) Europe."Health requirements & disease control:Aquatic Animal Health (Scotland) Regulations 2009, which implement Directive 2006/88/EC. Available online at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2009/85/contents/made