Salmon, Atlantic (Farmed)
Production country — Europe
Production method — Open net pen, Organic certification
Organic Certification Standards for farmed Atlantic salmon set comprehensive standards for the cultivation of salmon which includes third party auditing, inspection and enforcement procedures, standards include hatchery production and feed production. These standards led to better overall environmental performance including: reduced stocking densities leading to less benthic impacts and disease reduction; limited use of medicines and chemicals in production; feed must be produced from off-cuts and by-products of human consumption fisheries and organic certified plant raw materials (no GMO) and stringent regulations and third party on site auditing.
Criterion score: 4info
Criterion score: -2info
Fish Health and Welfare
Criterion score: 0info
Criterion score: 2info
Open net pen, Organic certification
Salmon are farmed in open net pens in the sea. These are floating cages suspended in the sea and held in place by moorings underneath the cages.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.Anchovy, anchovies
Herring or sild
Salmon, Atlantic (Farmed)
Salmon, Chinook, King Salmon
Salmon, Chum, Keta, Calico or Dog salmon
Salmon, Coho , Silver, White
Salmon, Pink, Spring , humpback
Salmon, Sockeye , Red Salmon, Bluebacks, Redfish
Sardine, European pilchard, sardines
Scad, Horse Mackerel
Tuna, Atlantic bluefin (Caught at sea)
Salmon are termed “anadromous”, meaning during their lifecycle they move between fresh and marine waters; salmon farming attempts to mirror this lifecycle. Broodstock fish are moved to freshwater for spawning, where the eggs are also fertilised and hatched. The hatched fish (called fry) are also kept in freshwater and fed pellets manufactured from fish meal. At about 18 months the fish (now called smolts) are transferred to seawater cages where growth continues until market size is reached, usually at about 2 years.
ReferencesFAO: Atlantic salmon Feed Production. http://www.fao.org/fishery/affris/species-profiles/atlantic-salmon/feed-production/en/ Accessed 01/05/2014
Soil Association organic standards aquaculture Revision 17.2 June 2014.http://www.soilassociation.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=pM14JxQtcs4%3d&tabid=353
Marine Scotland Science (2013) Scottish Fish Farm Production Survey. Scottish Government.
FAO Cultered Species Factsheet. http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Salmo_salar/en
MBA Seafood Watch assessment. Farmed Atlantic salmon in Scotland 2014
Aquaculture and Freshwater Fisheries Act (2012) , WEWS Act 2003. EIA (Scotland) Regulation 1999, Alien and Locally Absent Species in Aquaculture (2007) Europe."Health requirements & disease control:Aquatic Animal Health (Scotland) Regulations 2009, which implement Directive 2006/88/EC: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ssi/2009/85/contents/made"
Marine Scotland http://aquaculture.scotland.gov.uk/data/environmental_monitoring_surveys.aspx