Prawn, King (whiteleg), prawns

Litopenaeus vannamei

Method of production — Farmed
Production country — Global
Production method — Pond system
Certification — Global Gap certified
Picture of Prawn, King (whiteleg), prawns

Sustainability rating three info

Sustainability overview

Global Gap certification standards for the production of warm water prawns defines and enforces production standards to address many issues of concern. Intensive prawn/shrimp farming is associated with a number of negative environmental impacts which are of concern, these include: The use of unsustainable feed resources ; the risk of salinisation of freshwater bodies; discharge of organic matter and nutrients leading to environmental changes; use of chemicals and therapeutics in production and the potential of disease transfer between farmed and wild prawns. Marine prawns are carnivorous requiring high protein inclusion on their diet, this is one of the most critical concerns regarding prawn farming as the supply of fishmeal and fish-oil being used is, in general not traceable to species level and is not certified sustainable. They are also concerns regarding the current regulatory framework and level of enforcement for aquaculture production in some areas.

Feed Resources

Criterion Score: 0

Feed ingredients, both marine and terrestrial for Global Gap certified prawns are traceable and encouraged to be responsibly sourced although this is not a requirement.

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Environmental Impacts

Criterion Score: -4

Whiteleg prawn have a number of environmental issues associated with their production, many of which are mitigated or limited by the Global Gap certification standards. These include: freshwater impacts and use; habitat impacts; pond discharge, escape risk and disease outbreaks and predator control.

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Fish Health and Welfare

Criterion Score: 0

Welfare standards are included within the Global Gap criteria. Widespread disease outbreaks however are known for this species.

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Management

Criterion Score: 2

Criteria for certification to the Global Gap standard meets the requirements for regulation of production, overall they are effective however major disease outbreaks are still occurring.

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Production method

Pond system

Prawn /shrimp are farmed in saline/brackish water ponds of various sizes and intensities in many countries, either in coastal areas or inland within or outside the intertidal zone.

Biology

The king prawn (or whiteleg prawn, white shrimp) belongs to the largest of the prawn and shrimp family, the Penaeidae. It is a native species of the Eastern Pacific coast. Its lifecycle may be divided into 6 stages or phases, from embryo to adult, which it completes in one year. The age of sexual maturity varies from 5 to 7 months. They can live up to 2 years in the wild although farmed prawns are usually harvested at 6 months.

References

FishSite. 2010. The Fish Site: How to Farm Whiteleg Shrimp - by Lucy Towers 16th July 2010 https://thefishsite.com/articles/cultured-aquatic-species-whiteleg-shrimp

GlobalGAP. 2017a. INTEGRATED FARM ASSURANCE: All Farm Base - Aquaculture Module CONTROL POINTS AND COMPLIANCE CRITERIA, ENGLISH VERSION 5.1 EDITION 5.1-1_AQ_NOV17.VALID FROM: NOVEMBER 2017 OBLIGATORY FROM: 1 FEBRUARY 2018 https://www.globalgap.org/.content/.galleries/documents/171110_GG_IFA_CPCC_AQ_V5_1-1_en.pdf

GlobalGAP. 2017b. GlobalGAP General Regulations - Aquaculture Rules: English version 5.1 - valid from 1 July 2017, obligatory from 1 October 2017 https://www.globalgap.org/.content/.galleries/documents/170630_GG_GR_Aquaculture_Rules_V5_1_en.pdf

GlobalGAP. 2016. Compound Feed Manufacturing Standard Version 2.2. Control Points and Compliance Criteria. English Version 2.2. Valid from 1 August 2016 https://www.globalgap.org/.content/.galleries/documents/160805_gg_cfm_cpcc_v2.2_Aug16_en.pdf

Lightner DV. 1985. A review of the diseases of cultured penaeid shrimps and prawns with emphasis on recent discoveries and developments. In Taki Y., Primavera J.H. and Llobrera J.A. (Eds.). Proceedings of the First International Conference on the Culture of Penaeid Prawns/Shrimps, 4-7 December 1984, Iloilo City, Philippines (pp. 79-103). Iloilo City, Philippines: Aquaculture Department, Southeast Asian Fisheries Development Center. https://repository.seafdec.org.ph/bitstream/handle/10862/877/ficcpps_p079-103.pdf;jsessionid=C1415EE435DBA5CECEAA7885D46ABA36.jvm1?sequence=1

MBA. 2017. Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch assessment of Farmed Whiteleg Shrimp grown in ponds in Vietnam. http://www.seafoodwatch.org/-/m/sfw/pdf/reports/s/mba_seafoodwatch_farmedvietnam_shrimp.pdf

MBA. 2015. Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch assessment of Farmed Whiteleg Shrimp grown in ponds in Indonesia. http://www.seafoodwatch.org//m/sfw/pdf/reports/s/mba_seafoodwatch_indonesia_shrimp_report.pdf

SNI. 2015. Shrimp News International - Shrimp News Interviews Dr. James Wyban The Father of SPF Shrimp http://www.shrimpnews.com/FreeReportsFolder/HistoryFolder/HistoryUnitedStates/DrJamesWybanFatherOfSPF.html

Tacon AGJ, Jory D, Nunes A. 2013. Shrimp feed management: issues and perspectives. In M.R. Hasan and M.B. New, eds. On-farm feeding and feed management in aquaculture. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 583. Rome, FAO. pp. 481-488. http://www.fao.org/tempref/FI/CDrom/T583/root/18.pdf

TheFishSite. 2016. The Challenge of Shrimp Diseases in Asia https://thefishsite.com/articles/the-challenge-of-shrimp-diseases-in-asia