Squid, Atlantic, Common, European, Veined

Loligo spp. (Loligo forbesii, L. Vulgaris and Alloteuthis subulata).

Method of production — Caught at sea
Capture method — Jig
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — English Channel
Stock detail

7d and e


Picture of Squid, Atlantic, Common, European, Veined

Sustainability rating three info

Sustainability overview

Loliginids landings generally include four species and are named after their long fins. Around 75% of landings of long-finned squid species in the North-eastern Atlantic come from the following three areas: the English Channel (around 37%), the Cantabria/Bay of Biscay (around 20%) and the North Sea (around 10%).

The stock status of Loliginid squid is largely unknown and is difficult to determine. This is largely due to the fact that their populations fluctuate rapidly as their populations are very sensitive to environmental change, fishing activity and damage to spawning grounds. It is particularly difficult to provide stock assessments for individual squid species as they are not distinguished in fishery statistics and often landed as “mixed Loligo spp.”.

There are no direct measures to manage squid in this region. There is a need for increased management, particularly as squid populations may be overexploited, vary dramatically and there a high level of uncertainty in stock assessments. European cephalopods receive irregular stock assessments, often with high levels of uncertainty and there is a lack of data for the stock. Improvements to management include limits to catches of new recruits, restricted entry to the fishery, and protected areas for spawning grounds.

Climate change has generally caused both squid biomass and its range to change over the past three for four decades. In the UK, squid are now caught at 60% of scientific survey stations in the North Sea, compared with 20% in the 1980s. Squid appear to be benefitting from climate change, where they may struggle. However, some squid populations have shown to be negatively impacted by climate change. For example, ocean warming has significantly decreased the embryo survival rate and embryonic development period of L. vulgaris, and caused a higher percentage of abnormalities and decreased growth rate in the species.

There are targeted squid fisheries, though they are mainly taken as bycatch in mixed demersal, bottom or pelagic trawl fisheries. Jigging is a more environmentally-friendly method of catching squid as it is very selective and presents a low risk to the seabed.

Biology

Squid are highly advanced predatory molluscs related to octopus and cuttlefish. Squid have 8 arms and 2 longer tentacles which are used to capture their prey. There are two main species found in the UK: Loligo vulgaris and Loligo forbesi. They are widespread throughout the North East Atlantic and the Mediterranean. Loligo vulgaris can grow to around 45cm mantle length (ML) whilst L.forbesi can grow up to 90cm ML. They are short-lived only living for 2 to 3 years, fast growing and are often found to be larger than the imported squid found in restaurants. When reproducing, males die shortly after spawning and females die shortly after brooding. Their eggs are laid on the seabed and are found in large egg masses.

Stock information

Criterion score: 0.5 info

Stock Area

English Channel

Stock information

Long-finned squid production in the English Channel have substantially decreased since the early 2000s, but have generally slightly increased since 2012. A recent stock assessment suggests that fishing pressure on English Channel squid populations is high, but is very variable.

French fleets dominate their landings, followed by England, Wales & Northern Ireland. A report based in the English Channel from 2015 suggested that squid mortality from the recreational fishing is potentially sufficient to result in overexploitation the stock.

Discards generally represent a very low proportion of the catch (in the English Channel in 2016, a reported 17.7 tons were discarded out of 3492 tons of loligo landings, or 0.5%).

Management

Criterion score: 0.75 info

There is a need for increased management, particularly as squid populations may be overexploited, vary dramatically and there a high level of uncertainty in stock assessments.

There are few management measures for squid: squid are a non-quota species and there is no minimum conservation reference size for the species. They may be afforded some protection, through marine protected areas and effort limitationse.g. days at sea limits, gear restrictions and real-time closures. It is difficult to manage squid because their populations fluctuate dramatically with environmental variability. Researchers suggest they should be managed through habitat protection, such as prohibiting their catch in spawning areas (as spawning habitats are destroyed by trawling) and by improving modelling of stocks to forecast future abundance.

Monitoring
The ICES working group (WGCEPH) regularly collate each countryas data: in UK waters, landings data are collected to determine the landings-per-unit-effort (LPUE) values of commercial fleets and catch-per=unit-effort (CPUE) data are calculated from research surveys. However, there is often insufficient to create full stock assessments as the survey methods are not deemed sufficient and the landings data are often inaccurate (because squid landings are recorded by genus, and are not specific-species and their populations fluctuate rapidly). Therefore, European squid receive irregular stock assessments, often with high levels of uncertainty. There is little pressure to collect good quality data because squid are often a bycatch species.

Surveillance and enforcement
All EU vessels over 12m long are required to use Vessel Monitoring Systems (VMS) and all vessels are required to record catches electronically, use logbooks and report transshipment, landing declarations, sales notes, and transport documents. Surveillance activities include observing VMS data, logbooks, dockside monitoring and visual inspections at-sea. Compliance rates are deemed as higha in UK waters.

Capture Information

Criterion score: 0 info

This capture method is selective and therefore, bycatch is minimal, usually consisting of whitefish. There is also minimal habitat damage.

References



Malhomme, F., Porcher, Z., Safi, G., Robin, J., 2015. English Channel Loliginid squid stocks and MSFD descriptors: surplus production models used to estimate stock status and biomass and the role of squid resources in the trophic network. ICES CM 2015/P:19. Available at: http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/ASCExtendedAbstracts/Shared%20Documents/P%20-%20How%20to%20hit%20an%20uncertain,%20moving%20target.%20Achieving%20Good%20Environmental%20Status%20under%20the%20Marine%20Strategy%20Framework/P1915.pdf.

Project Inshore. 2016. Western Approaches: Squid: Demersal trawl (TR1: >100mm) . Available at: http://msc.solidproject.co.uk/inshore-uoc.aspx?id=8439&s=5106&a=

Project Inshore. 2016. Western Approaches: Squid: Demersal trawl (TR2: 80-100mm). Available at: http://msc.solidproject.co.uk/inshore-uoc.aspx?id=8443&s=&a=

ICES. 2018. Interim Report of the Working Group on Cephalopod Fisheries and Life History (WGCEPH), 6-9 June 2017, Funchal, Madeira, Portugal. ICES CM 2017/SSGEPD:12. 132 pp.

ICES. 2016. Interim Report of the Working Group on Cephalopod Fisheries and Life History (WGCEPH), 8-11 June 2015, Tenerife, Spain. ICES CM 2015/SSGEPD:02. 127 pp.



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Evans, P.G.H. and Hintner, K. (2012) A Review of the Direct & Indirect Impacts of Fishing Activities on Marine Mammals in Welsh waters. CCW Policy Research Report No. 12/5: 1-172.

Sealifebase. 2016. Loligo vulgaris, European squid. Available at: https://www.sealifebase.ca/summary/Loligo-vulgaris.html

Sealifebase. 2016. Loligo forbesii. Veined squid. Available at: https://www.sealifebase.ca/summary/Loligo-forbesii.html

European Market Observatory for Fisheries and Aquaculture Products (EUMOFA). 2014. Squid. Available at: http://www.eumofa.eu/monthly-highlights. No.1/2014.

EUMOFA. 2015. Squid. Available at: http://www.eumofa.eu/monthly-highlights.

Malhomme, F., Porcher, Z., Safi, G., Robin, J., 2015. English Channel Loliginid squid stocks and MSFD descriptors: surplus production models used to estimate stock status and biomass and the role of squid resources in the trophic network. ICES CM 2015/P:19. Available at: http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/ASCExtendedAbstracts/Shared%20Documents/P%20-%20How%20to%20hit%20an%20uncertain,%20moving%20target.%20Achieving%20Good%20Environmental%20Status%20under%20the%20Marine%20Strategy%20Framework/P1915.pdf.

Smith, J. M., C. D. Macleod, V. Valavanis, L. Hastie, T. Valinassab, N. Bailey and G. J. Pierce 2013. Habitat and distribution of post-recruit life stages of the squid Loligo forbesii. Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography.