Bream, Gilthead (Farmed)

Sparus auratus

Method of production — Farmed
Production country — Europe
Production method — Open net pen
Picture of Bream, Gilthead (Farmed)

Sustainability rating four info

Sustainability overview

In Greece, fish farming has emerged as one of the fastest growing industries and now accounts for around 50% of the European Union's production of sea bream.Turkey, Spain, and Italy are also key producers. Bream farmed in open net pens causes some environmental concerns. These concerns include: pollution from both nutrients and organic matters that lead to environmental changes; escaped farmed fish; disease transfer between farmed and wild species; introduction of non-indigenous species that can act as 'pests' in local communities, some remaining concerns surrounding enforcement and regulatory controls. Bream are carnivorous fish that require more fish in their diet than they actually produce, leading to a net loss of marine proteins and oils. The fish used to make their feed cannot be assured to be sourced from a sustainable supply.


Gilthead bream can grow to a length of 70cm and live for as long as 11 years. It is a sedentary species found in depths of up to 150m. Spawning occurs between November and December.


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Production method

Open net pen

Farming in open net pens allows for interaction with the surrounding environment and, as such, has to be managed in such a way as to minimise negative environmental and ecological impacts.


Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.

Basa, Tra, Catfish or Vietnamese River Cobbler
Bass, seabass (Farmed)
Bream, Gilthead (Farmed)
Cod, Atlantic Cod
Coley, Saithe
Hake, Cape
Hake, European
Japanese amberjack, Yellowtail or Seriola
Pollack or Lythe
Pollock, Alaska, Walleye
Pouting or Bib
Sturgeon (Farmed)


EU Council Regulation (EC) No 834/2007 on Organic Production

Health status of wild and cultured Seabream in the northern Adriatic Sea: Vet. Med. - Czech, 47, 2002 (8): 222-226

CIESM Workshop Monographs Impacts of Mariculture on Coastal Ecosystems. 2007 .

THE IMPACT OF A FISH FARM ON A BOTTLENOSE DOLPHIN POPULATION IN THE MEDITERRANEAN SEA: halassas, 2005, 21 (2): 65-70 An International Journal of Marine Sciences Http://

Health status of wild and cultured Seabream in the northern Adriatic Sea: Vet. Med. - Czech, 47, 2002 (8): 222-226