Lobster, Norway, Langoustine, Dublin Bay prawn or scampi
Capture method — Demersal otter trawl
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — North Sea (Moray Firth)
Stock detail — 4a, Functional Unit 9
Certification — FIP Stage 2. More info available [here](https://fisheryprogress.org/fip-profile/uk-norway-lobster-bottom-trawl-and-creel)
Updated: July 2019.
The small Norway lobster is usually caught by trawling, often using nets with small mesh sizes, and therefore bycatch of other species and habitat impacts on the seabed are among the biggest concerns in these fisheries. Where the fishery overlaps with a Marine Protected Area that has been designated to protect seabed features, this concern is increased. In addition, management generally isn’t following scientific advice - with measures being across a wide area, rather than on a stock-by-stock basis, allowing catches are to be above recommended levels in some places.
In the Moray Firth, the stock is neither overfished, nor subject to overfishing. However, management here is not applied at the functional unit level, and catches have been above scientific advice. Around 46% of catches are from the directed Nephrops fishery (using smaller mesh sizes) and 53% from the mixed Nephrops/demersal fishery (using larger mesh sizes), while 1% is from creeling (which has low bycatch and low habitat impact). Numerous fish species and marine mammals aggregate in this area, so keeping unwanted bycatch to a minimum is important. Current efforts to reduce discards and unwanted bycatches include the implementation of larger meshed square mesh panels and real time closures to avoid cod.
Norway Lobster (also known as langoustine or scampi) live in burrows on the seabed. They are limited to a muddy habitat and require sediment with a silt and clay content to excavate burrows. Their distribution therefore is determined by the availability of suitable habitat. They occur over a wide area in the North East Atlantic, from Iceland to North Africa and into the Mediterranean, and constitute a valuable fishery for many countries. Males grow relatively quickly to around 6 cm, but seldom exceed 10 years old. Females grow more slowly and can reach 20 years old. Females mature at about 3 years. In the autumn they lay eggs which remain attached to the tail for 9 months (known as being “berried”). During this time the berried females rarely emerge from their burrows and therefore do not commonly appear in trawl catches, although they may be caught using baited creels. This habit of remaining in their burrows has probably afforded their populations some resilience to fishing pressure. Egg hatching occurs in the spring, and females emerge in spring/summer to moult and mate.
Criterion score: 0 info
North Sea (Moray Firth)
The stock is in a good state and fishing pressure is at sustainable levels.
The stock has been above MSY Btrigger (262 million individuals) since 1993, and in 2018 it was 717 million individuals. The harvest rate has fluctuated around FMSY (11.8%) in recent years and is now just below FMSY at 11.7%.
ICES advises that when the EU multiannual plan (MAP) for the North Sea is applied, catches in 2020 that correspond to the F ranges in the plan are between 1008 tonnes and 1307 tonnes. The entire range is considered precautionary when applying the ICES advice rule and the upper limit is equivalent to FMSY. This is a 2.6% increase in advice owing to the inclusion of the 2018 survey, as well as updating mean weights and discard rates.
Since 2011, catches have exceeded advice in every year except 2012, 2013 and 2015. In 2018 advice was for 1,219t and landings were 1,399t.
Discard rates in the Moray Firth have been quite variable: in 2013 they were 3.3% but in 2016 they had risen to 18%. In 2017 and 2018 they were low again, 2.6% and 0.9% respectively. Rather than changes in fishing practices, this could suggest poor recruitment of young Nephrops into the fishery, having potential implications for the stock sizer in future years.
Criterion score: 0.75 info
There are multiple management measures and a variety of enforcement employed in the fishery, though the quota is not applied at the functional unit level and therefore, the stock is at risk of overfishing. The stock is currently in a good state, and fishing pressure is at sustainable limits, but recent catches have been above the scientific advice.
Nephrops stock assessments are conducted by the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea (ICES). Stock assessments are produced for 33 areas across the Northeast Atlantic, called functional units. However, management is applied to a separate 18 areas, called management units. These management units broadly overlap with the functional units, but not very effectively. Vessels are free to move between grounds, allowing effort to develop on some grounds in a largely uncontrolled way and result in overfishing. Therefore, scientists have repeatedly advised over the years that management should be implemented at the functional unit level, to better protect the Nephrops. This should provide the controls to ensure that catch opportunities and effort are compatible and in line with the scale of the resources in each of the stocks: functional unit TAC management is only one way of managing the fisheries and other approaches may also deliver the required safeguards. However, this advice is not being followed.
This stock is covered by the EU’s North Sea Multi Annual management Plan (MAP), covering eleven FUs: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 32, 33 and 34. Rather than holding strictly to MSY-based reference points, the MAP includes upper and lower ranges for fishing pressure (F).The ranges for F are set at the Functional Unit level and FU-specific management measures can be introduced if individual Nephrops functional units are found to be below the sustainable abundance levels.
Since 2011, catches have exceeded advice in every year except 2012, 2013 and 2015. In 2018 advice was for 1,219t and landings were 1,399t. Catch advice for 2020 is between 1008 tonnes and 1307 tonnes, in line with the North Sea MAP ranges. The entire range is considered precautionary when applying the ICES advice rule and the upper limit is equivalent to FMSY.
The EU Landings Obligation came into force for Nephrops fisheries in the 80-99 mm trawl fisheries in 2016, meaning that below Minimum Conservation Reference Size (MCRS) individuals, as well as adults that are unwanted (e.g. over-quota) must be landed rather than discarded at sea. As of January 2019, the discard ban applies to all species subject to catch limits. There are a number of exemptions that apply to Nephrops, including de minimis exemptions of up to 6% in some fisheries and full exemptions in fisheries where there is high survivability. MCRS for Nephrops in the North Sea is 25 mm carapace length (32mm for Denmark, Sweden and Norway). The ban would be expected to increase the number of below MCRS individuals and unwanted adults being landed, but throughout EU waters compliance with this regulation is generally poor and there is often no change in landings. It has been calculated that the proportion of catch of individuals below the MCRS might always be less than 6%, explaining this anomaly but not explaining the lack of landings of unwanted adults.
Discard rates in the Moray Firth have been quite variable: in 2013 they were 3.3% but in 2016 they had risen to 18%. In 2017 and 2018 they were low again, 2.6% and 0.9% respectively. Rather than changes in fishing practices, this could suggest poor recruitment of young Nephrops into the fishery, and therefore low levels of below MCRS individuals. In 2016-2018, no Norway lobster were recorded as below MCRS in FU 9, despite catches having been observed below the MCRS.
The UK is the main producer of Norway lobster from the North Sea (74% of landings by weight in 2017). There are a series of technical measures for fishing gear for this fishery, set by the UK and the EU, relating to: mesh size, distance from the cod line, panel length (depending on engine power), and mesh construction. UK legislation also prohibits twin or multiple rig trawling with a diamond cod end mesh smaller than 100 mm in the North Sea south of 57.30 degrees N. Recent measures to reduce whitefish bycatch (e.g. cod) required vessels in the northern North Sea using mesh size of below 100mm to employ highly selective gears (HSG), e.g. Gamrie Bay Trawl or Faithlie Cod Avoidance Panel. In 2012 most vessels operating in the northern North Sea and the Farn Deeps fished exclusively with specified highly selective gears (reducing cod catches by 60% by weight) or had installed 200 mm square mesh panels.
The Scottish fleet accounts for almost all of the landings in the Moray Firth, and most vessels are under 10m and therefore exempt from a number of management and surveillance measures. A number of under 10m vessels are using large square-meshed panels (160-200mm) and reporting better catches than when using HSGs. There is a voluntary effort restriction for Nephrops trawlers (Moray Firth Prawn Agreement) for the Inner Moray Firth: the most westerly part of the Moray Firth is reserved for vessels under 300 HP, with a further small area reserved for vessels under 400 HP.
Landings are monitored from EU logbooks and sales notes, or sales notes only for under-10m vessels that do not have to keep EU logbooks. Discards are estimated by observers on randomly selected vessels.
In the European Union (EU), EU fishing vessels can fish up to 12 nautical miles of any Member State coast, and closer by agreement. There is overarching fisheries legislation for all Member States, but implementation varies between fisheries, Member States and sea basins.
The EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the primary overarching policy. Its key environmental objectives are to restore and maintain harvested species at healthy levels (above BMSY), and apply the precautionary and ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. To achieve the MSY objective, the MSY exploitation rate is supposed to be achieved by 2020, but this seems unlikely to happen.
The CFP also introduced a Landing Obligation (LO) which bans the discarding at sea of species which are subject to catch limits. Some exemptions apply to species with high post-capture survival, and where avoiding unwanted catches is very difficult. These exemptions are outlined in regional discard plans. Despite quota ‘uplift’ being granted to fleets under the LO, available evidence suggests there has been widespread non-compliance with the policy, and illegal and unreported discarding is likely occurring.
Multi-Annual Plans (MAPs) are a tool for implementing the CFP regionally, with one in place or being developed for each sea basin. They specify fishing mortality targets and ranges for the main targeted species, as well as lower biomass reference points. If populations drop below these points it should trigger a management response. The MAPs also empower Member States to jointly apply measures such as closures, gear or capacity limits, and bycatch limits. There is concern however that the MAPs do not provide adequate safeguards to maintain all stocks at healthy levels.
The EU Technical Measures regulation addresses how, where and when fishing can take place in order to limit unwanted catches and ecosystem impacts. There are common measures that apply to all EU sea basins, and regional measures that vary between sea basins. Measures include Minimum Conservation Reference Sizes (MCRS, previously Minimum Landing Sizes, MLS), gear specifications, mesh sizes, closed areas, and bycatch limits.
The Control Regulation, which is being revised in 2019, addresses application of and compliance with the above, e.g. keeping catches within limits, recording and sharing data, and satellite tracking of vessels over 12 metres (VMS).
Criterion score: 0.5 info
In 2018 this fishery was split between the two main gears: 46% of catches were from the directed Nephrops fishery (using smaller mesh sizes); and 53% from the mixed Nephrops/demersal fishery (using larger mesh sizes), while 1% was from creeling. The recruits of numerous demersal fish species occasionally aggregate in the area and small pelagics (sprat and juvenile herring) are seasonally abundant. The area is important for marine mammals (seals and cetaceans). It is important that efforts are made to ensure that unwanted bycatch is kept to a minimum in this fishery. Current efforts to reduce discards and unwanted bycatches include the implementation of larger meshed square mesh panels and real time closures to avoid cod.
There is a Landing Obligation on this stock, but compliance is patchy. See Management tab for details.
This species is caught as part of a mixed demersal fishery, so bycatch can include cod, haddock, whiting, saithe, plaice and sole. In the North Sea, plaice and saithe are in a good state and fishing pressure within sustainable levels. Haddock and sole are in a good state, but fishing pressure is too high. Whiting is slightly below sustainable levels, and fishing pressure is too high. Cod is in a very poor state, and fishing pressure is too high. Recent measures to reduce whitefish bycatch (e.g. cod) required vessels in the northern North Sea using mesh size of below 100mm to employ highly selective gears (HSG), e.g. Gamrie Bay Trawl or Faithlie Cod Avoidance Panel. In 2012 most vessels operating in the northern North Sea and the Farn Deeps fished exclusively with specified highly selective gears (reducing cod catches by 60% by weight) or had installed 200 mm square mesh panels.
Endangered, threatened and protected species caught in the catch can include some skates, rays and sharks. These species are relatively hardy, and can survive when they are discarded, but their survival rates largely depend on how they were caught and handled. Mortality rates in otter trawls are shown to vary between 10-65%, depending on fishing and handling methods. Those vessels which employ codes of conduct on skate and ray handling and/or reduce the risk of their capture, will improve their survival rates, though many of these methods aren’t implemented over whole functional unit or regional levels.
Nephrops are mainly found in soft mud habitats, which are also associated other burrowing animals like other crustaceans, bivalves (including the long-lived and slow-growing ocean quahog), and polychaete worms. They are also associated with emergent epifauna such as soft corals and sea pens, which are vulnerable to interactions with bottom-towed fishing gear. Disturbance from trawl gear on the seabed, especially over long periods of time, is likely to affect the structure, species composition, and biodiversity of the burrowed mud community. In the Northern North Sea and Skagerrak, there is a “high sub-surface footprint”, which is “almost exclusively” caused by “high fishing intensities with bottom trawls targeting Nephrops and mixed fish which have a significant sub-surface impact”.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.Abalone
Clam, Manila (Farmed)
Crab, brown or edible
Lobster, Norway, Langoustine, Dublin Bay prawn or scampi
Mussel, mussels (Farmed)
Oyster, Native, oysters (Caught at sea)
Oyster, Native, oysters (Farmed)
Oyster, Pacific, oysters (Caught at sea)
Oyster, Pacific, oysters (Farmed)
Prawn, King (whiteleg), prawns
Prawn, Northern prawns, Northern shrimp
Prawn, Tiger prawns (Farmed)
Scallop, King, scallops
Squid, Japanese flying
ReferencesEU, 2018. Regulation 2018/973 establishing a multiannual plan for demersal stocks in the North Sea and the fisheries exploiting those stocks. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018R0973&from=EN [Accessed on 02.07.2019].
Hinz, H., Prieto, V., and Kaiser, M. J., 2009. Trawl disturbance on benthic communities: chronic effects and experimental predictions. Ecological Applications: A Publication of the Ecological Society of America, 19(3), 761-73. Available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19425437 [Accessed 23.09.2019].
ICES, 2018. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 24 April - 3 May 2018, Oostende, Belgium. ICES CM 2018/ACOM: 22pp. Available at http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2018/WGNSSK/01-WGNSSK%20Report%202018.pdf [Accessed on 02.07.2019].
ICES. 2019. Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) in Division 4.a, Functional Unit 9 (central North Sea, Moray Firth). In Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2019. ICES Advice 2019, nep.fu.9, doi: 10.17895/ices.advice.4868. Available at http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2019/2019/nep.fu.9.pdf [Accessed on 09.07.2019].
Seafish, 2018. RASS Profile: Nephrops in the Moray Firth, Demersal otter trawl. Available at https://www.seafish.org/risk-assessment-for-sourcing-seafood/profile/nephrops-in-the-moray-firth-demersal-otter-trawl [Accessed on 09.07.2019]
WWF, 2019. Remote Electronic Monitoring in UK Fisheries Management 2017. Available at https://www.wwf.org.uk/sites/default/files/2017-10/Remote%20Electronic%20Monitoring%20in%20UK%20Fisheries%20Management_WWF.pdf [Accessed on 02.07.2019].
Enever R., T.L. Catchpole T.L., Ellis. J.R., Grant A. The survival of skates (Rajidae) caught by demersal trawlers fishing in UK waters. Fisheries Research 97 (2009) 72-76
Mandelman J.W., Cicia, A.M., Ingram Jr, G.W. Driggers III, W.B., Coutreb, K.M. and Sulikowskib, J.A. Short-term post-release mortality of skates (family Rajidae) discarded in a western North Atlantic commercial otter trawl fishery. Fisheries Research 83 (2007) 238-245.
Marine Scotland. 2018. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE DEMERSAL LANDING OBLIGATION IN 2018 MARINE SCOTLAND GUIDANCE FOR SCOTTISH FISHING VESSELS. Available at: http://www.gov.scot/Topics/marine/Sea-Fisheries/discards/demersal/DemersalLandingObligation-GuidancetoSkippers.
Russell, J. and Mardle, S. 2017. Analysis of Nephrops industry in Scotland. Final Report. Available at: http://www.sff.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/AS-nephrops-FINAL-report-171017-ISSUED.pdf
Kingma, I. and Walker, P. Rays of Hope - Discard survival in North Sea Skates and Rays. ICES CM 2014/O:09. Available at: http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/CM%20Doccuments/CM-2014/Theme%20Session%20O%20contributions/O0914.pdf
Williams, C., and Carpenter, G. 2016. NEF working paper: The Scottish Nephrops fishery: Applying social, economic, and environmental criteria.
BENTHIS. 2015. Deliverable 2.3: Benthic impact of fisheries in European waters: the distribution and intensity of bottom trawling. Available at: http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00310/42138/54476.pdf
Drewery, J., Edridge, A., Kinghorn, M., Kynoch, R.J., Mair, J., O'Neill, F. G and K Summerbell. Effects of Codend Mesh Size and Twine Number on Nephrops Selectivity. Scottish Marine and Freshwater Science Vol 6 No 3. ISSN: 2043-7722. Aberdeen, UK.
ICES. 2018. Cod (Gadus morhua) in Subarea 4, Division 7.d, and Subdivision 20 (North Sea, eastern English Channel, Skagerrak). Published 29 June 2018 Version 2: 8 August 2018. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/cod.27.47d20.pdf
ICES 2018. Haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus) in Subarea 4, Division 6.a, and Subdivision 20 (North Sea, West of Scotland, Skagerrak). Published 29 June 2018 Version 2: 8 August 2018. Available at: http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/had.27.46a20.pdf
ICES. 2018. Hake (Merluccius merluccius) in subareas 4, 6, and 7, and in divisions 3.a, 8.a-b, and 8.d, Northern stock (Greater North Sea, Celtic Seas, and the northern Bay of Biscay). Published 29 June 2018. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/hke.27.3a46-8abd.pdf
ICES. 2017. Anglerfish (Lophius budegassa, Lophius piscatorius) in subareas 4 and 6 and Division 3.a (North Sea, Rockall and West of Scotland, Skagerrak and Kattegat). Published 31 October 2017. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2017/2017/anf.27.3a46.pdf
ICES. 2018. Whiting (Merlangius merlangus) in Subarea 4 and Division 7.d (North Sea and eastern English Channel). Published 29 June 2018 Version 2: 6 August 2018. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/whg.27.47d.pdf
ICES. 2018. Saithe (Pollachius virens) in subareas 4 and 6, and in Division 3.a (North Sea, Rockall and West of Scotland, Skagerrak and Kattegat). Published 29 June 2018 Version 2: 8 August 2018. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/pok.27.3a46.pdf
ICES. 2018. Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) in Subarea 4 (North Sea) and Subdivision 20 (Skagerrak). Published 29 June 2018 Version 2: 8 August 2018. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/ple.27.420.pdf
ICES. 2018. Megrim (Lepidorhombus spp.) in divisions 4.a and 6.a (northern North Sea, West of Scotland. Published 29 June 2018. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/lez.27.4a6a.pdf.