Cod, Atlantic Cod

Gadus morhua

Method of production — Caught at sea
Capture method — Gill or fixed net
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — Iceland
Stock detail — Va
Picture of Cod, Atlantic Cod

Sustainability rating one info

Sustainability overview

The Icelandic cod stock is assessed by ICES as being at sustainable levels or healthy and is being harvested sustainably. Fishing is prohibited in areas where numbers of small cod (less than 55cm) within the catch exceed 25%. Discarding is prohibited in Iceland as the whole catch must be landed. To increase the sustainability of the fish you buy choose line-caught or seine netted fish. When buying longline-caught cod, ask for fish caught using 'seabird-friendly' methods. See Fishing Methods for details. The longline, handline and Danish seine fishery for cod in Iceland's EEZ was certified to the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) standard as an environmentally responsible fishery in June 2011.

Biology

Cod belongs to a family of fish known as gadoids, which also includes species such as haddock, pollack, pouting and ling. It is a cold-temperate (boreal) marine, demersal (bottom-dwelling) species. Also found in brackish water. Their depth range is 0 - 600 m, but they are more usually found between 150 and 200 m. They have a common length of 100 cm. Maximum length 200 cm. Maximum published weight 96 kg and a maximum reported age of 25 years. In the North Sea cod mature at 4-5 years at a length of about 50 cm. They spawn in winter and the beginning of spring from February to April. Fecundity ranges from 2.5 million eggs in a 5 kg female to a record of 9 million eggs in a 34 kg female. Sex ratio is nearly 50%, with slight predominance of females. The fish has a protruding upper jaw, a conspicuous barbel on the lower jaw (used to look for food), and a light lateral line, curved above the pectoral fins. Widely distributed in a variety of habitats, from the shoreline down to the continental shelf. Juveniles prefer shallow (less than 10-30 m depth) sublittoral waters with complex habitats, such as seagrass beds, areas with gravel, rocks, or boulder, which provide protection from predators. Adults are usually found in deeper, colder waters. During the day, cod form schools and swim about 30-80 m above the bottom, dispersing at night to feed.

Stock information

Stock Area

Iceland

Stock information

Since the introduction of a Government management plan in 2009, the Spawning Stock Biomass for the stock has continued to rise and is higher now than has been observed over the past four decades. Fishing mortality has declined significantly in the past decade and is presently at a historical low. The stock has full reproductive capacity and is harvested sustainably. ICES advises that when the Iceland management plan is applied, catches in the fishing year 2017/2018 should be no more than 257 572 tonnes (244,000 t in 2016/17; 239,000 t in 2015/2016; 218, 000 t in 2014/2015; 215, 000 t in 2013/14; 196,000 in 2012/13).

Management

The introduction of a Harvest Control rule in 2009 has seen Spawning Stock Biomass rise. Restrictions on catches have resulted in 60% reduction in fishing mortality and 50% in harvest rate since 2000. A real-time closure system aimed at protecting juvenile fish has been in force since 1976. Fishing is prohibited, for at least two weeks, in areas where the proportion by number of small cod (< 55 cm) in the catches is observed by inspectors to exceed 25%. Since 1995, spawning areas have been closed for 2-3 weeks during the spawning season for all fisheries. This measure was aimed at protecting spawning fish. In 2005, the maximum mesh size allowed in gillnets was decreased to 20.3 cm (8 inches) in order to protect the largest spawners, but this mesh size ban was lifted in 2012. The mesh size in the codend in the trawling fishery was increased from 120 mm to 155 mm in 1977. Since 1998 the minimum codend mesh size allowed is 135 mm, provided that a so-called "Polish cover" is not used. The longline, handline and Danish seine fishery for cod in Iceland's EEZ was certified to the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) standard as an environmentally responsible fishery in June 2011.

Capture Information

Discarding is prohibited in Iceland as the whole catch must be landed. In 2005 the maximum mesh size allowed in gillnets was decreased to 20.3 cm (8 inches) in order to protect the largest spawners. For fixed net fisheries, bycatch of marine mammals and other non-target species including seabirds can be problematic. However, use of management measures, including acoustic devices called 'pingers' can help reduce bycatch of marine mammals.

Alternatives

Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.

Basa, Tra, Catfish or Vietnamese River Cobbler
Bass, seabass (Farmed)
Bream, Gilthead (Farmed)
Cod, Atlantic Cod
Coley, Saithe
Haddock
Hake, Cape
Hake, European
Japanese amberjack, Yellowtail or Seriola
Pollack or Lythe
Pollock, Alaska, Walleye
Pouting or Bib
Sturgeon (Farmed)
Tilapia
Whiting

References

ICES Advice 2017, Book 2 http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2017/2017/cod.27.5a.pdf