Capture method — Longline
Capture area — Pacific, South (FAO 81,87) and Central (FAO 71,77)
Stock area — South Pacific
Stock detail — All Areas
Updated: December 2019
There are two stocks of albacore in the Pacific Ocean, one in the northern hemisphere and the other in the southern hemisphere. Albacore in the South Pacific is assessed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and jointly managed by the Western and Central Pacific Fishery Commission (WCPFC) and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). The latest stock assessment was carried out in 2018, using data up to 2016. Although estimates are wide ranging, all models show that the stock is not overfished or subject to overfishing. Despite this, the model did also indicate that there has been a long-term decline in the spawning biomass compared to unfished levels. Recent assessments have not considered the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) component, which therefore remains effectively un-assessed. EPO catches of southern albacore have recently increased to 30% of the total. The IATTC staff plans to undertake an assessment of south Pacific albacore in collaboration with the SPC during 2021-2022, pending funding.
Total catch of South Pacific albacore in 2018 was 80,820t, a 2% decrease from the 2013-2017 average. The estimate of Maximum Sustainable Yield is 98,100 tonnes, but this is highly uncertain and projections have demonstrated that parts of the stock would decline sharply if catch and effort were increased to MSY levels. In 2015, WCPFC limited the number of fishing vessels actively fishing for South Pacific albacore to 2005 levels or 2000-2004 average levels. An interim Target Reference Point was adopted in 2018 - to keep spawning biomass at 56% of unfished levels. This is just above the most recent stock status (52%) and therefore stock recovery is required. If recent catches continue, the stock will decline, and therefore all recommended management scenarios in 2019 required catch (and effort) reductions from the 2014-16 average (60,000t).
There is no specific management for this stock in the EPO.
About 97% of the catch is taken in pelagic longline fisheries which can be associated with significant bycatch of other billfish and vulnerable species such as sharks, turtles, birds. Whilst there are some mitigation measures in place to reduce the impact, they often do not follow best practice and monitoring and reporting of interactions is insufficient to evaluate the effectiveness of these measures. There is 5% observer coverage on large longliners, but 20% is considered to be the minimum to be effective. There is concern that some seabird species, notably albatrosses and petrels, are threatened with global extinction. Of critical concern is Antipodean wandering albatross, which is expanding foraging range into tuna fishery areas and has experienced a high and sustained rate of decline. High bycatch of seabirds, especially albatross, continue to be reported by some countries fishing south of 30 degrees south.
Buyers need to ensure that any albacore being sourced from south of 30 degrees south is only coming from fleets that are either MSC certified or in a credible Fishery Improvement Project (FIP) or are using best practice seabird bycatch mitigation measures that are being well monitored. Large buyers should consider supporting improvements needed to achieve this. Commercial buyers should establish what measures the flag state and fleet relating to their source is taking to reduce impacts to and improve reporting of interactions with vulnerable species. Large buyers should consider supporting such improvements.
Tuna belong to the family Scombridae. They are large, oceanic fish and are seasonally migratory, some making trans-oceanic journeys. Albacore are found throughout the world’s temperate, sub-tropical and tropical oceans, although they are less common in the tropics. They are found from the surface to a depth of 600m where they often form mixed schools with skipjack, yellowfin and bluefin tuna. They grow more slowly than skipjack and yellowfin tuna, reaching a maximum size of 140cm, 60kg in weight and maximum age of 15 years. Albacore mature when about 90cm length and 4-5 years old. Spawning normally occurs between January and July.
Criterion score: 0 info
There are two stocks of albacore in the Pacific Ocean, one in the northern hemisphere and the other in the southern hemisphere. Albacore in the South Pacific is assessed by the Secretariat of the Pacific Community and jointly managed by the Western and Central Pacific Fishery Commission (WCPFC) and the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC). The latest stock assessment was carried out in 2018, using data up to 2016. Some improvements were made to the model, although further research and development is needed. Although estimates are wide ranging, all models show that the stock is not overfished, with spawning biomass above the limit reference point of 20% of unfished levels with 100% probability: the average estimate across all the model runs was 52% (estimates ranged from 37%-63%). Recent average fishing mortality is estimated to be well below FMSY (Frecent=FMSY = 0.2, with a range of 0.08 to 0.41) with a 0% probability that overfishing was occurring. Despite this, the model did also indicate that there has been a long-term decline in stock depletion (i.e. current stock size compared to unfished levels).
Fishing mortality on adults steadily increased up to 2010 (when catches peaked at 91,984 t), and have steadily declined since, following a decline in longlining. Juvenile fishing mortality increased until around 1990, and has remained stable at a low level since that time. Total catch of South Pacific albacore in 2018 was 80,820t, a 2% decrease from the 2013-2017 average. About 30% was taken in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO). The estimate of Maximum Sustainable Yield is 98,100 tonnes. Projections indicate that if 2018 catch level is continued, the stock is expected to increase in the short term, following recent good recruitments, then decrease to 39% by 2035. There is a 23% chance of the stock biomass breaching limit reference points by 2035. As with previous scientific advice, it is recommended that longline fishing mortality and longline catch (responsible for 97% of total catch) be reduced to avoid decline in the vulnerable biomass so that economically viable catch rates can be maintained, especially for longline catch of adult albacore.
Recent assessments of south Pacific albacore have not considered the fisheries data in all of the eastern Pacific Ocean, thus, the eastern part of the stock remains effectively un-assessed. However, EPO catches of southern albacore have recently increased. The IATTC staff plans to undertake an assessment of south Pacific albacore in collaboration with the SPC during 2021-2022, pending funding.
Spawning occurs in tropical and subtropical waters, around 20 degrees South. Juveniles move southward from the tropics (at about 35 cm long), and then east along the Subtropical Convergence Zone to about 130 degrees W. When the fish approach maturity they return to tropical waters to spawn.
Criterion score: 0.5 info
Most tuna stocks range across and are accessed by numerous coastal states, making harmonised and effective management of these individual stocks very difficult. As a result, intergovernmental Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) have been established. There are five main tuna RFMOs worldwide and it is their responsibility to carry out data collection, scientific monitoring and management of these fisheries. The responsibility for the management of Albacore in the south Pacific is shared between the Inter-American Tropical Tuna Commission (IATTC) and the Western and Central Pacific Fishery Commission (WCPFC). Whilst these RFMOs are responsible for the development of management and conservation measures, the degree to which they are implemented, monitored and enforced still varies significantly between coastal states. For this reason, it is important to choose tuna that has been caught by vessels that are well regulated by their flag state.
America, Fiji and New Zealand all have Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified sustainable and well managed albacore fisheries.
IATTC have no specific measures in place at all for this stock, and eastern Pacific portion is not covered by the stock assessment, therefore the eastern component of this fishery - which contribute about 30% of catches - is poorly managed. The IATTC staff plans to undertake an assessment of south Pacific albacore in collaboration with the SPC during 2021-2022, pending funding.
For the western component: The WCPFC scientific committee advises that although the stock is not overfished nor being subject to overfishing, if recent catches continue the stock will decline. Longline fishing mortality and catch should be reduced to avoid further decline in the vulnerable biomass, so that economically viable catch rates can be maintained, especially for longline catches of adult albacore. Estimates of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) are highly uncertain and projections have demonstrated that longline exploitable biomass, and hence CPUE, would fall sharply if catch and effort were increased to MSY levels. In 2015, WCPFC limited the number of fishing vessels actively fishing for South Pacific albacore to 2005 levels or 2000-2004 average levels. At the same time, an interim target reference point (TRP) was meant to have been adopted but this has been deferred. While a limit reference point has been adopted (spawning stock biomass at 20% of unfished levels), the lack of a TRP has prevented progress on the development of a harvest strategy, allowing the fishery to further decline both biologically and economically. An interim TRP was adopted in 2018 - SB at 56% of unfished levels - which is just above the most recent stock status (52%) and therefore stock recovery is required. In 2018 and 2019, evaluations of different management options have been conducted with the aim of reaching the interim TRP within 20 years - although some countries were keen to see a shorter recovery time than this. Given that recent catch levels would cause the stock to decline, all recommended management scenarios required catch (and effort) reductions from the 2014-16 average (60,000t).
Both the IATTC and WCPFC have the following additional management measures:
5% observer coverage is required on longliners greater than 20m, although this is considered to be too low for accurate data: a minimum of 20% coverage is recommended. In addition, data recorded by IATTC longliners is considered inadequate for scientific purposes and minimum data standards need to be identified and introduced.
To help address IUU: an IUU Vessel List is maintained as well as a register of authorised fishing vessels; transhipments at sea for most vessels are prohibited (some exemptions apply) and most other transhipments must be documented and observed as part of the regional observer programme. Countries are required to report annually on monitoring, control and compliance of management measures. The IATTC and WCPFC endeavour to work together to promote compatibility between their respective conservation and management measures across the Pacific.
In 2017, WCPFC introduced a Compliance Monitoring Scheme to assess and improve compliance with obligations, and penalise non-compliance.
Criterion score: 0.75 info
97% of albacore in the South Pacific is caught in pelagic longline fisheries.
Longlining targets larger, mature fish yet is often associated with the bycatch of vulnerable species such as seabirds, turtles and sharks. To address this, both the IATTC and the WCPFC require a number of mitigation measures.
Seabirds: Feeding opportunities for some seabird species are dependent on the presence of tuna schools feeding near the surface. Some seabirds, especially albatrosses (waved (Phoebastria irrorata), black-footed (P. nigripes), Laysan (P. immutabilis), and black-browed (Thalassarche melanophrys)) and petrels, are susceptible to being caught on baited hooks in pelagic longline fisheries. In the eastern Pacific there is particular concern for the waved albatross, because it is endemic to the EPO and nests only in the Galapagos Islands. Longliners must use one or more seabird bycatch mitigation measures from a set list of options, depending on vessel size and fishing location, including weighted branch line, bird scaring lines, and night setting. However, recommended best practice is for those three measures to be applied simultaneously.
Turtles: IATTC note that tuna fisheries in the Eastern Pacific are having an adverse effect on sea turtle populations, and there is particular concern over the marked decline in the number of nesting female leatherback turtles (3,000 in 1990; 300 in 2015). The Eastern Pacific sub-population of leatherbacks is classified as Critically Endangered and at risk of extinction in the area. In both IATTC and WCPFC areas, vessels must carry line cutters and de-hookers to promptly release turtles or to foster to recovery any sick or comatose turtles captured. Gear modifications such as circle hooks for shallow set gear, or in the IATTC the use of finfish bait only, are also required. A study in 2017 noted that less than 1% of Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) longline effort is subject to mitigation, even though approximately 20% of the WCPO longline effort consists of shallow sets. IATTC have noted that mortality rates of turtles due to longlining are possibly greater for those that set their lines at shallower depths at night for albacore and swordfish, although WCPFC notes that there are significantly more deep sets than shallow sets and a lower chance of live release from deep sets.
Sharks: permissible sharks are to be fully utilized and no more than 5% of fins to total shark weight can be retained; there is a prohibition to land oceanic whitetips and silky sharks (and mobula rays in IATTC area); and countries must develop national plans of action to address the bycatch of sharks, turtles and seabirds. Shark lines are prohibited. For fisheries specifically targeting sharks, countries are required to develop management plans, demonstrating how they intend to avoid or reduce catches of highly depleted shark species. For the IATTC, any shark (whether alive or dead) caught that is not retained must be promptly released unharmed, following safe release requirements. There are special measures to protect silky sharks, including a limit on bycatch of silky sharks to a maximum of 20% of the total catch by fishing trip in weight. This limit is an interim measure, to be replaced when there is enough data for a stock assessment of the species (although a resolution was passed by IATTC in 2016 requiring stock assessments, and as of 2019 there is still not enough data). Fishing in silky shark pupping areas in IATTC area is prohibited, although these areas do not appear to have been clearly defined. In 2016, WCPFC adopted measures to improve recording of manta and mobula rays discarded and released, and to treat these species as key shark species for assessment and research. The scientific committee has noted that target and limit reference points have not yet been established for pelagic sharks by WCPFC.
Monitoring and reporting is deficient in many fisheries, and the effectiveness of these measures has not been evaluated. In 2016 IATTC introduced stricter monitoring and reporting of catches of shark species, but the scientific committee continues to advise that shark data collection is inadequate and must be improved. The scientific committee has also recommended stricter requirements for seabird mitigation techniques and proof of effectiveness before new techniques are introduced. There is 100% observer coverage on large purse seiners in the EPO so the data coming from these fleets should be useful and of high quality. Only 5% observer coverage is required on longliners greater than 20m in length, although the scientific committee recommends 20% coverage and improved standards of data collection. Despite strong recommendations to increase coverage as part of the urgent measures to protect leatherback turtles, a new IATTC resolution on observer coverage in 2019 kept the minimum at 5%, although consideration of electronic monitoring systems is planned in 2020.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.Anchovy, anchovies
Herring or sild
Salmon, Atlantic (Farmed)
Salmon, Chum, Keta, Calico or Dog salmon
Salmon, Pink, Spring , humpback
Salmon, Sockeye , Red Salmon, Bluebacks, Redfish
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