Mackerel

Scomber scombrus

Method of production — Caught at sea
Capture method — Purse seine
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — Southern, Western & North Sea
Stock detail

EU & Norway (MINSA)


Certification

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)


Picture of Mackerel

Sustainability rating two info

Sustainability overview

To ensure the mackerel you buy is as sustainable as possible only source fish caught locally using traditional methods including handlines, ringnets and drift nets and from the MINSA North East Atlantic mackerel fishery, certified in May 2016 as a well managed and sustainable fishery in accordance with the MSC’s Principles and Criteria for Sustainable Fishing.

Biology

Mackerel is a fast swimming species belonging to a group of fish known as the scombrid family, which are related to the tuna. They are found in brackish marine waters in depths of up to 1000 m (though more normally in depths of 0-200 m). Abundant in cold and temperate shelf areas, they form large schools near the surface. They overwinter in deeper waters but move closer to shore in spring when water temperatures range between 11 degrees and 14 degrees C. Mainly diurnal, they feed on zooplankton and small fish. Mackerel are batch spawners, they spawn mainly in March to July; the eggs and larvae are pelagic. After spawning, the adults feed very actively, moving around in small shoals. By 3 years old, most mackerel are mature (at a length of approximately 28 cm). Females shed their eggs in about twenty separate batches over the course of the spawning season. Juvenile mackerel grow quickly and can reach 22 cm after one year, and 30cm after 2 years. Mackerel can attain a maximum length of about 70 cm and weight of 3.4 kg.They may live for more than 20 years.

Stock information

Criterion score: 0.5 info

Stock Area

Southern, Western & North Sea

Stock information

Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel is assessed as one stock, but comprises three spawning components: the combined southern and western components and a separate North Sea spawning component. Only the North Sea component is sufficiently distinct to be clearly identified as a separate spawning component. Catch and survey data from recent years indicate that the stock has expanded northwestwards during spawning and the summer feeding migration. This distributional change may reflect changes in food availability and may be linked to increased water temperature, and/or increased stock size.

The spawning component of the stock has increased considerably since 2002 and remains high, above all required levels of sustainability. The North Sea component, however, has been long depleted and requires maximum possible protection and the recommendation is that measures to protect this component remain in place.

Based on the most recent scientific advice (September 2017), the stock is assessed as having full reproductive capacity. Spawning Stock Biomass (SSB) is estimated to have increased since the early 2000s and has been above MSY-Btrigger since 2008. The fishing mortality (F) has been declining from high levels in the mid-2000s but remains above FMSY. There has been a succession of large year classes since the early 2000s.

ICES advises that when the MSY approach is applied, catches in 2018 should be no more than 550 948 tonnes (857 185 tonnes in 2017; 667 385 tonnes in 2016; between 831 000 tonnes and 906 000 tonnes in 2015; 927 000 tonnes and 1,011,000 tonnes in 2014; 497,000 and 542,000 t in 2013).

Management

Criterion score: 0 info

Since the introduction of the coastal states agreement in the mid 90’s between the EU, Norway and Faroe Islands, the management of this stock has evolved into a successful, science-based plan with fishing effort set at a sustainable level.
The management plan for the NEA mackerel stock, evaluated by ICES as precautionary, was agreed by Norway, Faroe Islands, and the EU in October 2008.

The Mackerel Industry Northern Sustainability Alliance (MINSA) North East Atlantic mackerel fishery, formed of 7 fisheries previously engaged in the MSC programme independently, and made up of over 700 fishing boats from small coastal handline vessels through to large ocean-going pelagic trawlers from eleven countries, was certified in May 2016 as a well-managed and sustainable fishery in accordance with the MSC’s Principles and Criteria for Sustainable Fishing. The handline fishery in southwest England was one of the first fisheries to be certified as an environmentally responsible fishery by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) in 2001. Due to the cost of maintaining it a decision not to renew its certification was made in February 2012.

Capture Information

Criterion score: 0.25 info

Over 95% of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel catch originates from purse seiners and midwater trawlers, with the remainder coming from coastal purse seiners and handline vessels. Pelagic trawling, like purse seining, is an efficient form of fishing capable of removing large quantities of fish in one haul. Juvenile mackerel are protected within the Mackerel Box off the Cornish coast and in the South Western Approaches, in which there is a ban on targeted fishing for mackerel by trawlers and purse seiners and where a handline fishery operates with a separate quota allocation. The minimum landing size for mackerel in EU waters is 20cm (30cm in North Sea). Mackerel is mainly exploited in a directed fishery for human consumption. This fishery tends to target bigger fish and there is evidence of discarding of smaller, less marketable fish; however this is now considered by ICES to be at very low levels, 1.7% is estimated, but might be higher.

References

ICES Advice 2017 http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2017/2017/mac.27.nea.pdf
ICES Advice 2016, Book 9 http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2016/2016/mac-nea.pdf
ICES Advice 2015, Book 9 http://www.ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2015/2015/mac-nea.pdf
http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/in-assessment/north-east-atlantic/minsa-north-east-atlantic-mackerel https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/minsa-north-east-atlantic-mackerel/minsa-north-east-atlantic-mackerel