Mackerel

Scomber scombrus

Method of production — Caught at sea
Capture method — Pelagic trawl
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — Northeast Atlantic and adjacent waters
Stock detail

EU & Norway (MINSA)


Certification

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) - Currently suspended


Picture of Mackerel

Sustainability rating rating under review info

Sustainability overview

Please note, following assessment of North East Atlantic mackerel in Autumn 2018, when the stock was assessed as being too low and fishing pressure too high and above the recommended safe level, MCS is awaiting the outcome of an ICES workshop to inform management advice for the stock taking place in May 2019 before making any final revision of the scoring and rating for this fishery. This workshop follows recent scientific investigation of the stock when the NEA mackerel inter-benchmark group met at ICES HQ for a data workshop on 11-13 December 2018 and again for a final second meeting on 4-7 March 2019. Due to concerns for overfishing of the stock and the management of the fishery, the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) has taken the decision to suspend all fisheries certified in accordance with the MSC’s Principles and Criteria for Sustainable Fishing until an expedited audit of the fishery is completed.

Biology

Mackerel is a fast swimming species belonging to a group of fish known as the scombrid family, which are related to the tuna. They are found in brackish marine waters in depths of up to 1000 m (though more normally in depths of 0-200 m). Abundant in cold and temperate shelf areas, they form large schools near the surface. They overwinter in deeper waters but move closer to shore in spring when water temperatures range between 11 degrees and 14 degrees C. Mainly diurnal, they feed on zooplankton and small fish. Mackerel are batch spawners, they spawn mainly in March to July; the eggs and larvae are pelagic. After spawning, the adults feed very actively, moving around in small shoals. By 3 years old, most mackerel are mature (at a length of approximately 28 cm). Females shed their eggs in about twenty separate batches over the course of the spawning season. Juvenile mackerel grow quickly and can reach 22 cm after one year, and 30cm after 2 years. Mackerel can attain a maximum length of about 70 cm and weight of 3.4 kg.They may live for more than 20 years.

Stock information

Criterion score: 0.5 info

Stock Area

Northeast Atlantic and adjacent waters

Stock information

Northeast Atlantic (NEA) mackerel is assessed as one stock, but comprises three spawning components: the combined southern and western components and a separate North Sea spawning component. Only the North Sea component is sufficiently distinct to be clearly identified as a separate spawning component. Catch and survey data from recent years indicate that the stock has expanded northwestwards during spawning and the summer feeding migration. This distributional change may reflect changes in food availability and may be linked to increased water temperature, and/or increased stock size.

The results of the recent egg surveys indicate a decrease in the relative importance of the southern component (from 24% of the mackerel stock in 2013 to 10% in 2017). While the biomass of the western component estimated by the 2016 egg survey also decreased in the same period, its relative contribution to the mackerel stock increased from 73% to 83%. The biomass of the North Sea component estimated by the egg survey increased in 2017, and this component is now estimated to represent 7% of the spawning stock.

Based on the most recent scientific advice (September 2018), the spawning-stock biomass (SSB) is estimated to have increased in the late 2000s to reach a maximum in 2011 and has been declining since then. The stock is estimated to be below MSY Btrigger in 2018, for the first time since 2007. The fishing mortality (F) has declined from high levels in the mid-2000s, but increased again after 2012, and remains above FMSY. There has been a succession of large year classes since the early 2000s, but the 2015 and 2016 year classes are estimated to be below average.
ICES assesses that fishing pressure on the stock is above FMSY and between Fpa and Flim; and spawning-stock size is below MSY Btrigger and between Bpa and Blim.
ICES advises that when the MSY approach is applied, catches in 2019 should be no more than 318 403 tonnes (550 948 tonnes in 2018; 857 185 tonnes in 2017; 667 385 tonnes in 2016; between 831 000 tonnes and 906 000 tonnes in 2015; 927 000 tonnes and 1,011,000 tonnes in 2014; 497,000 and 542,000 t in 2013).

Management

Criterion score: 0 info

Since the introduction of the coastal states agreement in the mid 90’s between the EU, Norway and Faroe Islands, the management of this stock has evolved into a successful, science-based plan with fishing effort set at a sustainable level.
The management plan for the NEA mackerel stock, evaluated by ICES as precautionary, was agreed by Norway, Faroe Islands, and the EU in October 2008.

The Mackerel Industry Northern Sustainability Alliance (MINSA) North East Atlantic mackerel fishery, formed of 7 fisheries previously engaged in the MSC programme independently, and made up of over 700 fishing boats from small coastal handline vessels through to large ocean-going pelagic trawlers from eleven countries, was certified in May 2016 as a well-managed and sustainable fishery in accordance with the MSC’s Principles and Criteria for Sustainable Fishing. The handline fishery in southwest England was one of the first fisheries to be certified as an environmentally responsible fishery by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) in 2001. Due to the cost of maintaining it a decision not to renew its certification was made in February 2012.

Capture Information

Criterion score: 0.25 info

Over 95% of the Northeast Atlantic mackerel catch originates from purse seiners and midwater trawlers, with the remainder coming from coastal purse seiners and handline vessels. Pelagic trawling, like purse seining, is an efficient form of fishing capable of removing large quantities of fish in one haul. Juvenile mackerel are protected within the Mackerel Box off the Cornish coast and in the South Western Approaches, in which there is a ban on targeted fishing for mackerel by trawlers and purse seiners and where a handline fishery operates with a separate quota allocation. The minimum landing size for mackerel in EU waters is 20cm (30cm in North Sea). Mackerel is mainly exploited in a directed fishery for human consumption. This fishery tends to target bigger fish and there is evidence of discarding of smaller, less marketable fish; however this is now considered by ICES to be at very low levels, 1.7% is estimated, but it might be higher.

Alternatives

Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.

Anchovy, anchovies
Arctic char
Herring or sild
Salmon, Atlantic (Farmed)
Salmon, Chinook, King Salmon
Salmon, Chum, Keta, Calico or Dog salmon
Salmon, Coho , Silver, White
Salmon, Pink, Spring , humpback
Salmon, Sockeye , Red Salmon, Bluebacks, Redfish
Sprat, whitebait
Swordfish
Trout, Rainbow
Tuna, albacore
Tuna, bigeye
Tuna, skipjack
Tuna, yellowfin

References

ICES Advice 2018. ICES Advice on fishing opportunities, catch, and effort Ecoregions in the Northeast Atlantic and Arctic Ocean. Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) in subareas 1-8 and 14, and in Division 9.a (the Northeast Atlantic and adjacent waters). Published 28 September 2018. Available at: http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2018/2018/mac.27.nea.pdf (Accessed Novevmber 2018).
http://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/in-assessment/north-east-atlantic/minsa-north-east-atlantic-mackerel https://www.msc.org/track-a-fishery/fisheries-in-the-program/certified/north-east-atlantic/minsa-north-east-atlantic-mackerel/minsa-north-east-atlantic-mackerel