Sole, Dover sole, Common sole
Capture method — Beam trawl
Capture area — North East Atlantic (FAO 27)
Stock area — North Sea
Stock detail — 4
Updated: July 2019.
The Dover sole biomass in the North Sea is in a good state, although fishing pressure remains a bit too high and is above the maximum sustainable yield. Fishing pressure has reduced due to past management measures. However, discarding could still be taking place, despite the Landing Obligation being fully in force since 2016. Both gillnets and beam trawls can encounter bycatch of vulnerable species, and beam trawls also have impacts on the seabed.
A number of MSC certified sole fisheries operate in the North Sea.
Sole is a right-eyed flatfish (eyes on the right hand side of the body) and belongs to the family of flatfishes known as Soleidae. It spawns in spring and early summer in shallow coastal water, from April to June in the southern North Sea, from May-June off the coast of Ireland and southern England, and as early as February in the Mediterranean. Common sole become sexually mature at 3-5 years, when 25-35cm long, the males being somewhat smaller than the females. It can attain lengths of 60-70cm and weigh 3kg.The maximum reported age is 26 years. Sole is a nocturnal predator and therefore more susceptible to capture by fisheries at night than in daylight.
Criterion score: 0.25 info
The stock is in a good state, and fishing pressure has declined to just above sustainable levels.
The spawning-stock biomass (SSB) has increased since 2007 and has been estimated above MSY Btrigger (37,000t) since 2012. In 2018 it was at 51,459t. Fishing mortality (F) has declined since 1999 and the 2018 level (0.22) is close to FMSY (0.202) and the lowest since 1958. Recruitment (R) has fluctuated without trend since the early 1990s.
ICES advises that when the EU multiannual plan (MAP) for the North Sea is applied, catches in 2020 that correspond to the F ranges in the MAP should be between 7,170 tonnes and 20,820 tonnes. According to the MAP, catches higher than those corresponding to FMSY (12,317 tonnes) can only be taken under conditions specified in the MAP (see management tab for MAP details), whilst the entire range is considered precautionary when applying the ICES advice rule. This is a 3.80% reduction compared to last year, owing to the downwards revision of SSB in the update assessment, as well as low recent recruitment. Between 1997 and 2008 TACs were set above scientific advice, sometimes significantly so, and catches often exceeded them. TACs and catches have come closer to the advice since then. In 2019 - the first year of managing this stock according to the North Sea MAP - ranges were set at 7451t - 21,644t and the TAC was agreed at 12,555t, which was below FMSY.
Survey data from 2000-2017 shows that the stock is expanding north of 56 degrees N, up to the west coast of Denmark, particularly for sole larger than 24 cm.
Criterion score: 0.25 info
The 2007 recovery plan successfully reduced fishing pressure, which has now almost reached sustainable levels, and the stock is now in a good state. Observer reports suggest that unreported discarding is still occurring, despite the Landings Obligation.
This stock is covered by the EU’s North Sea Multi Annual management Plan (MAP). Rather than holding strictly to MSY-based reference points, the MAP includes upper and lower ranges for fishing pressure (F). This is to allow for the multi-species nature of the fishery - a number of demersal species are caught together in the North Sea, and if catch limits are reached for one species, this will limit the ability to catch others even when quotas are not filled. Therefore, the MAP allows some species to be caught at levels above MSY under specific conditions: SSB must be greater than MSY Btrigger, and: a) if it is necessary for the achievement of objectives of mixed fisheries; or b) if is necessary to avoid serious harm to a stock caused by intra- or inter-species stock dynamics; or c) in order to limit variations in fishing opportunities between consecutive years to not more than 20 %. ICES considers that the FMSY range for this stock used in the MAP is precautionary.
Between 2014 and 2018 the use of pulse trawls in the main fishery operating in the North Sea increased and fewer vessels were operating with traditional beam trawls. The pulse gear allows fishing of softer grounds and as a result the spatial distribution of the main fisheries has changed to the southern part of the Division 4.c. As a consequence, a larger proportion of the sole catch is now taken in this area. Following the EU decision in February 2019 to revise the technical measures regulations, the pulse gear will be prohibited from 30th of June 2021 and it is now being phased out. It is expected that the fleets will revert to the traditional gears and fishing grounds.
Sole in Subarea 4 has been fully under the landing obligation since 2016, with de minimis exemptions in certain fisheries. It would be expected that this would result in an increase of below minimum size (BMS) fish that would formerly have been discarded now being reported in landings in logbooks. However, BMS landings are currently much lower than the would be expected, which in 2018 would be 8.6% of the total catch based on catch monitoring programmes.
A number of Marine Stewardship Council certifications are available for North Sea sole.
In the European Union (EU), EU fishing vessels can fish up to 12 nautical miles of any Member State coast, and closer by agreement. There is overarching fisheries legislation for all Member States, but implementation varies between fisheries, Member States and sea basins.
The EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP) is the primary overarching policy. Its key environmental objectives are to restore and maintain harvested species at healthy levels (above BMSY), and apply the precautionary and ecosystem-based approaches to fisheries management. To achieve the MSY objective, the MSY exploitation rate is supposed to be achieved by 2020, but this seems unlikely to happen.
The CFP also introduced a Landing Obligation (LO) which bans the discarding at sea of species which are subject to catch limits. Some exemptions apply to species with high post-capture survival, and where avoiding unwanted catches is very difficult. These exemptions are outlined in regional discard plans. Despite quota ‘uplift’ being granted to fleets under the LO, available evidence suggests there has been widespread non-compliance with the policy, and illegal and unreported discarding is likely occurring.
Multi-Annual Plans (MAPs) are a tool for implementing the CFP regionally, with one in place or being developed for each sea basin. They specify fishing mortality targets and ranges for the main targeted species, as well as lower biomass reference points. If populations drop below these points it should trigger a management response. The MAPs also empower Member States to jointly apply measures such as closures, gear or capacity limits, and bycatch limits. There is concern however that the MAPs do not provide adequate safeguards to maintain all stocks at healthy levels.
The EU Technical Measures regulation addresses how, where and when fishing can take place in order to limit unwanted catches and ecosystem impacts. There are common measures that apply to all EU sea basins, and regional measures that vary between sea basins. Measures include Minimum Conservation Reference Sizes (MCRS, previously Minimum Landing Sizes, MLS), gear specifications, mesh sizes, closed areas, and bycatch limits.
The Control Regulation, which is being revised in 2019, addresses application of and compliance with the above, e.g. keeping catches within limits, recording and sharing data, and satellite tracking of vessels over 12 metres (VMS).
Criterion score: 0.75 info
Sole is mainly taken by beam trawlers in a mixed fishery for sole and plaice in the southern and central part of the North Sea. This method can have high levels of bycatch, and can have impacts on the seabed.
In 2018, 90% of the catch was taken by beam trawling, 4.1% by gillnets, and 4.3% by trammel nets.
Fishing effort of the beam trawl fleet has shifted towards the southern North Sea to target sole over the past decade. Juvenile plaice tend to be relatively abundant there, leading to relatively high discarding rates of small plaice. In addition, the minimum mesh size of 80 mm selects sole at the minimum conservation size, but generates high discards of plaice, which have a larger minimum size (sole is 24cm, plaice is 27cm). Mesh enlargement would reduce the catch of undersized plaice, but would also result in loss of marketable sole.
In general discards of other species in beam trawls are high (> 50% of catch weight) including demersal elasmobranchs and occasionally protected, endangered and threatened (PET) species (e.g. sharks and rays) in certain circumstances. Measures from the recent flatfish management plan to reduce bycatch and disturbance to the sea bottom, and to provide economic incentives (reducing fuel costs) have reduced overall effort in the beam fishery in the past 16 years by 70%. This significant reduction of effort is likely to have reduced the impact of this fishery on the marine ecosystem. Under the North Sea MAP, bycatch species should be managed under the precautionary approach if scientific information is not available, and otherwise managed according to the key CFP objectives. If stocks fall below trigger levels, measures can be brought in such as limits on characteristics or use of gear (e.g. mesh size, depth); time/area closures; and minimum conservation reference sizes.
Beam trawls interact with the seabed, potentially modifying bottom topography including damage and removal of some biogenic features and interacting with vulnerable marine habitats and benthic communities. However, the risk due to damage to vulnerable marine habitats is likely to be reduced given that most of the footprint of the gear occurs on core fishing grounds. Some spatial management is in place and is continually being developed, which will restrict the footprint of this gear on the seabed. However, there remains some uncertainty about the location of some sensitive seabed habitats so these remain at risk.
Based on method of production, fish type, and consumer rating: only fish rated 2 and below are included as an alternative in the list below. Click on a name to show the sustainable options available.Dab
Halibut, Atlantic (Farmed)
Sole, Dover sole, Common sole
Turbot (Caught at sea)
ReferencesEU, 2018. Regulation 2018/973 establishing a multiannual plan for demersal stocks in the North Sea and the fisheries exploiting those stocks. Available at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018R0973&from=EN [Accessed on 02.07.2019].
ICES, 2018. Report of the Working Group on the Assessment of Demersal Stocks in the North Sea and Skagerrak (WGNSSK), 24 April - 3 May 2018, Oostende, Belgium. ICES CM 2018/ACOM: 22pp. Available at http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Expert%20Group%20Report/acom/2018/WGNSSK/01-WGNSSK%20Report%202018.pdf [Accessed on 02.07.2019].
ICES. 2019. Sole (Solea solea) in Subarea 4 (North Sea). In Report of the ICES Advisory Committee, 2019. ICES Advice 2019, sol.27.4, https://doi.org/10.17895/ices.advice.4873. Available at http://ices.dk/sites/pub/Publication%20Reports/Advice/2019/2019/sol.27.4.pdf [Accessed on 03.07.2019].
Seafish, 2019. RASS Profile: Sole in the Southern North Sea (ICES Sub Area 4), Beam trawl. Available at https://www.seafish.org/risk-assessment-for-sourcing-seafood/profile/sole-in-the-southern-north-sea-ices-sub-area-4-beam-trawl [Accessed on 03.07.2019].
WWF, 2019. Remote Electronic Monitoring in UK Fisheries Management 2017. Available at https://www.wwf.org.uk/sites/default/files/2017-10/Remote%20Electronic%20Monitoring%20in%20UK%20Fisheries%20Management_WWF.pdf [Accessed on 02.07.2019].